Malaysian Applied Biology 2023-11-02T11:25:50+00:00 Dr. Mohd Ikmal Asmuni Open Journal Systems <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Clarivate Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (MyJurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in <strong>Scopus</strong> since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> Isolation and Characterization of Cellulolytic Fungi From Decomposing Rice Straws 2023-10-31T04:22:15+00:00 Shir Nee Ong Chin Mei Lee <p>Rice straw is an agricultural waste that is normally produced after the paddy is harvested. Rice straw, which is high in cellulose content, makes it difficult to degrade. It is burnt away by most farmers as this method saves time and labor. However, the burning of rice straws could have a serious impact on the environment and human health in general. To overcome this, biodegradation using fungi should be applied in degrading the cellulosic waste. In this study, rice straws from Bagan Serai, Perak were collected. Decomposing of rice straws was prepared by adding coffee residue, cow and chicken dung, and phosphate fertilizer. A total of 18 isolates were isolated and purified from the sample and the isolates were brought further to macroscopic by observing the morphology. Morphological and microscopic characterization using a microscope was performed where the structure of the isolate was observed and their respective genus level was deduced. Among the 18 isolates, most of them were <em>Aspergillus</em>. Next, cellulase screening was done using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) agar with Gram iodine staining. Isolate C7 showed the largest diameter of the halo zone at 48 h of incubation whereas isolate 4D has the most significant increase of halo zone in 24-h duration.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Preliminary Assessment on Pretreatment Methods For Landfill Waste Utilization in Biohydrogen Production 2023-10-31T04:21:59+00:00 Nur Sofiya Mohd Fauzi Nurul 'Azyyati Sabri Mohd Fazli Farida Asras Hajar Fauzan Ahmad Nazira Mahmud <p>Landfill waste consists of a mixture of components that have high potential as a substrate for hosting various microorganisms’ growth. Utilizing this waste as a fermentation substrate is seen as an economical solution for the management of the waste. Treating this waste is crucial to remove unnecessary components for the growth of specific organisms to ensure a high reaction yield. Fermentative hydrogen production from this waste specifically requires the hydrogen-consuming bacteria to be reduced. In this work, heat, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, acid, and alkaline pretreatment were conducted on the landfill waste. The changes in the reduced sugar content and appearance of bacterial colonies were observed and compared. Heat pretreatment at 65 °C was found to give among the best increase (74 – 88%) in reducing sugar content and reduction (50 – 85%) in the number of aerobic bacterial colonies detected. Global warming potential and eutrophication potential recorded from simulated heat pretreatment plant was comparable to other heat-based pretreatment reported by other researchers with a potential reduction in severity as the plant size increased.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Performance of Okra and Soil Using Indigenous Microorganisms Inoculants 2023-10-31T04:21:42+00:00 Rubini Devi Selvarajoo Nurul 'Azyyati Sabri <p>Microbial inoculants are beneficial microorganisms applied to plants or the soil to promote plant growth and control pest disease and weeds. Microbial inoculants isolated from local surroundings are indigenous microorganisms (IMO) inoculants. The performance of the IMO inoculants is varied depending on the sources and the local environment. Therefore, it is important to identify the right sources to enhance the efficiency of the IMO inoculants. This research aims to study the performance of okra and soil by mixing potential yeast sources for indigenous microorganisms (IMO) inoculants. Longan and mango were chosen as the sources of yeasts. The IMO inoculants were fermented for a week, and the microorganisms group was identified. Then, the IMO inoculants were applied to the okra and tested for physical and mineral content analysis. IMO inoculants with mango and longan showed a higher yeast population than the control. However, IMO inoculants with mango showed the best plant growth and harvesting time performance. The soil treated with both IMO inoculants also showed higher potassium and calcium. To conclude, plants treated with both IMO inoculants performed better than the control. Thus, IMO inoculants with longan and mango may potentially enhance the yeast community in IMO inoculants, indirectly improving okra growth and benefiting the agriculture field in the future.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effect of Temperature and Fermentation Time on Protease Production Using Decapterus macarellus Fish Waste 2023-10-31T04:21:26+00:00 Noralia Mohd Alias Chua Gek Kee Chew Few Ne Noraziyah Abu Yazid Rozaimi Abu Samah Siti Hatijah Mortan <p>The fish processing industries generate huge amounts of by-products which cause serious environmental and health problems. The environmental problems related to waste disposal can be reduced as the low cost of fish by-products contains nutrients that can enhance microbial growth and are useful for enzyme production. This research aims to investigate the effect of temperature and fermentation time on protease production from fish waste hydrolysate by using the <em>Bacillus</em> strain (<em>Bacillus cereus</em>). The pre-treatment and fish waste hydrolysate were carried out and continued with the production of protease. The effect of fermentation time was studied every 4 h for 72 h while the effect of temperature was investigated at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 60 °C. The results showed the maximum protease production of 45.63 U/mL at 48 h of fermentation time and 44.908 ± 6.14 U/mL at a temperature of 50 °C. The current study provides insight into the effects of cultivation conditions on protease production from local fish waste industries for further optimization study to enhance protease production.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Eggshell on Hylocereus polyrhizus 2023-10-31T04:17:10+00:00 Phin Yin Sin Suat Hian Tan Zhe Cheng Ng Nyuk Ling Ma Wan Nurul Hidayah Wan Anuar <p>Dragon fruit (<em>Hylocereus polyrhizus</em>) is a tropical fruit. Recently, it has gained interest from the public due to its potential beneficial effects on health. The acclimatization of micropropagated Hylocereus polyrhizus depends on the application of gibberellic acid (GA3) to increase plant growth. Eggshells are waste materials from industrial sectors, and they are composed of calcium source that is vital for the development of plant shoots and root. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of different concentrations of GA3 and eggshell either added individually or in combination on the growth of shoot length and shoot diameter of <em>H. polyrhizus</em>. The result showed the shoot length of the <em>H. polyrhizus</em> increased by approximately 54.69%, from 0.64 ± 0.13 cm to 0.99 ± 0.26 cm, as the concentration of GA3 increased from 0 ppm to 10 ppm. Furthermore, this finding also reported that with eggshells, GA3 showed an adverse effect on the development of shoot diameter. The growth of shoot length and shoot diameter with the addition of eggshell was different, perhaps due to the gibberellic acid affecting the shoot length but not the shoot diameter. Generally, the growth of shoot length and shoot diameter with eggshells was higher in comparison with those without eggshells. With that, we can prove that eggshell is a good additive to promote the growth of <em>H. polyrhizus. </em></p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Perception of Malaysian Consumers Towards Probiotics in Fermented Foods and Their Benefits to Human Health 2023-10-31T04:21:09+00:00 Ida Muryany Md Yasin Nurul Dayana Zanudin <p>Consumers demonstrated an increase in awareness and interest in food that are closely associated with health benefits. As such, consumers are interested in consuming probiotic products and foods. Probiotics are bacteria that offer various benefits to human health when consumed in sufficient quantities. Numerous probiotic products have been listed, including fermented foods that contain probiotics that are beneficial to human health. Hence, consumers should be aware of these products. This study aimed to analyze the knowledge and awareness of consumers about probiotics and their benefits to human health and to evaluate the perception of consumers towards probiotics in fermented foods based on the socio-demographic profiles. The questionnaire was developed using Google Forms and distributed through social media. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. 150 respondents were involved, but only 133 of the data were selected. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the frequency of data from the socio-demographic profiles. Meanwhile, statistical analyses using chi-square analysis was conducted to identify significant difference at p-value &lt; 0.05 between consumers’ socio-demographic profile and their awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of probiotics and probiotics in fermented food. Overall, the survey indicated that consumers were well aware of, and had the knowledge and good perceptions towards probiotics and their presence in fermented foods.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evaluation of The In-Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Leucas zeylanica Extracts on Earthworms 2023-10-31T04:20:53+00:00 Hemagirri Manisekaran Muhammad Luqman Selahuddeen Zaidah Rahmat Faizuan Abdullah Abdul Fatah A Samad <p><em>Leucas zeylanica</em> known as Ketumbit has a wide range of medical applications. This fact includes the traditional practice of <em>L. zeylanica</em> for the treatment of worm infections successfully, however to date, the anthelmintic effect has still not been scientifically proven. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of <em>L. zeylanica</em>. The study began with the extraction of <em>L. zeylanica</em> extracts using methanol, ethanol, and aqueous. Subsequently, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible in vitro anthelmintic activity of various extracts of <em>L. zeylanica</em> against earthworms. Various concentrations (25, 50 &amp; 100 mg/mL) of extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of the time of paralysis and time of death of worms. All extracts of the plant exhibited considerable anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. Of them all, methanolic extract at 100 mg/mL showed the most efficacious anthelmintic activity that was comparable to the reference drug (albendazole, 25 mg/mL). Therefore, we conclude that methanolic extract at the concentration of 100 mg/mL could be considered a candidate for worm treatment apart from the standard medication. This work may provide a framework for further study of <em>L. zeylanica</em> as an alternative treatment for worm infection.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effects of Non-Allelic Interactions of O2 and SU2 Mutant Genes on Grain Biochemical Composition in Various Corn Inbreds 2023-10-31T04:20:35+00:00 Dmytro Serhiiovych Tymchuk Iurii Oleksandrovich Sadovnychenko Natalia Fedorivna Tymchuk Olga Serhiivna Pasiuga <p>The use of combinations of non-allelic mutant genes of the maize endosperm structure creates opportunities for improving the quality of corn grain in comparison not only with forms of the common type but also with monogenic endospermic mutants. In this study, the effect of a combination of mutant genes <em>O2</em> (Opaque-2) and <em>SU2</em> (Sugary-2) according to the biochemical composition of the grain was studied. For the research, a series of inbreds - carriers of a combination of mutant genes <em>O2SU2</em>, inbreds - carriers of monogenic mutations <em>O2</em> and <em>SU2</em>, as well as maize inbreds of the common type of two-year reproduction were used. In the experiments, the content of protein, starch, and oil and the main characteristics of their quality were studied. It was found that the inbred carriers of the O2SU2 combination are superior to the inbred carriers of monogenic mutations <em>O2</em> and <em>SU2</em> in terms of complex biochemical characteristics. In comparison with mutants O2 they were distinguished by an increased content of protein (by 12.3% on average), amylose in starch (by 38.9% on average), starch digestibility (by 24.4% on average), oil content (by 18.4% on average) and oleate content in oil (by 29.9% on average). In comparison with the carriers of <em>SU2</em> mutation, they had a higher content of lysine and tryptophan in the total grain protein (on average, by 19.4% &amp; 14.3%, respectively). The main characteristics of grain quality in carriers of a combination of mutant genes <em>O2SU2</em> were characterized by quantitative variability, which can modify the effect of non–allelic interaction of mutant genes <em>O2</em> and <em>SU2</em>. The obtained results indicate the effectiveness of using non-allelic interactions between the O2 and SU2 mutant genes to improve the quality of corn grain.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Species Identification of Potential Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Food Based on 16S Ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Sequences 2023-10-31T04:20:18+00:00 Yaacob Ilyanie Nur Huda Faujan Md Yasin Ida Muryany <p>Taxonomic identification of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented foods is essential as the microorganisms’ benefits are varied and often strain-specific. Using biochemical and physiological methods alone is inadequate to precisely distinguish each strain. In this study, molecular techniques were employed in the identification of 17 LAB isolated from three Malaysian fermented foods: belacan (BE), bosou (BO), and budu (BUM). The respective sizes of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the isolates were approximately 1500 bp and 750 bp when amplified with the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers. The phylogenetic analysis using both gene sequences revealed that all BE and BO isolates were identified as <em>Lactiplantibacillus plantarum</em>, while all BUM isolates were identified as<em> Lacticaseibacillus paracasei</em>. Both 16S rRNA and ITS genes could disclose the identity of the isolates up to the species level. In summary, the use of the ITS gene in conjunction with the 16S rRNA gene can help with the more effective identification of potential probiotic LAB strains isolated from fermented food.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from Mimosa pudica (Semalu) for Production of Bacterial Cellulose 2023-10-31T04:17:29+00:00 Lim Bei Min Junaidi Zakaria Siti Hatijah Mortan Shahril Mohamad Mohd Hairul Ab Rahim <p>Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a potential eco-friendly biopolymer. BC has higher crystallinity and purity compared to plant cellulose. Scientific studies on the production of BC from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are minimal compared to other common bacteria such as <em>Acetobacter xylinum</em>. LAB was screened and isolated from different tissues of <em>Mimosa pudica</em> (medicinal plant) using MRS broth and agar as the selective medium. LAB isolates were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing of all the bacterial isolates. BC was produced from all LAB isolates by incubating at 30 °C for 14 days in herbal tea medium (<em>Strobilanthes crispus</em>) and HS medium (control) with 130 r.p.m agitation. BC produced by two selected bacterial isolates was characterized using FESEM, FTIR, XRD, and TGA. Molecular analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of all the potential LAB isolates shows 99.86 - 100% identity to 16S rRNA sequences of other <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> strains. Two selected <em>L. plantarum</em> strains (LBM001 &amp; LBM004) produce BC in sphere-like particles with a 1.4 to 2.2 µm diameter range of microfiber. FTIR analysis shows that BC produced by LBM001 and LBM004 have four similar cellulose regions identified in cellulose from other sources, which are O-H stretch (3400-330 cm<sup>-1</sup>), C-H stretch (2970-2800 cm<sup>-1</sup>), O-H bending (1620cm<sup>-1</sup>) and C-O-C stretch (1100-1073 cm<sup>-1</sup>). XRD analysis shows BC produced by the <em>L. plantarum</em> strains consists of two different XRD peaks at the 2θ angle of 21.53° and 21.85° instead of a single peak (22.76°) identified in the BC produced by <em>A. xylinum</em> and plant cellulose. A similar TG and DTG curved pattern was detected in the BC produced by the <em>L. plantarum</em> strains with the BC produced by <em>A. xylinum</em> and plant cellulose. The LAB isolates from <em>M. pudica</em> have potential in BC production based on the multiple characterization studies.</p> 2023-11-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Identification and Characterization of Endophytic Fungi from Garcinia atroviridis for Potential Antagonistic Against Phytopathogenic, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 2023-10-31T04:20:02+00:00 Nur Afeeqah Mohamed Zanudin Nor'aishah Hasan Patayah Mansor <p>Biological control is referred to as the “use of natural or modified organisms, genes” to minimize the effects of undesirable pests, pathogenic microorganisms, and diseases on plant crops. This measure has become a suitable and safe alternative for chemical fungicides in plant disease management. Endophytic fungi have received much attention as biological control agents against many plant pathogens through antibiosis, parasitism, invading spores, mycelium, and cells of the pathogen, and secreting bioactive metabolites. While the therapeutic properties of <em>Garcinia</em> <em>atroviridis</em> have been studied, the existence of microbial endophytes and their properties is still less documented. In this research, <em>G</em>. <em>atroviridis</em> endophytic fungi were isolated and identified by fungal colony morphology observation combined with the PCR-amplified fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Fungal endophytes were assessed for their biocontrol potential against <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em>. In total, 111 endophytic fungal isolates harboring inside the leaf, branch, and fruit of <em>G. atroviridis</em> belonged to 5 different species with 3 different genera and two unidentified genera. All the endophytic fungal species isolated were evaluated using an in vitro dual culture assay against <em>C. gloeosporioides</em>, a common pathogen that causes anthracnose disease. The results of the present study clearly showed that seven species of isolated fungal endophytes were capable of inhibiting the mycelial colony growth of <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> with an inhibition percentage between 54.67% to 87.94%. Among these species, <em>Nigrospora sphaerica</em> recorded the highest PIRG with 87.94%. Our work indicates that endophytic fungi isolated from <em>G</em>. <em>atroviridis</em> have a biocontrol effect on <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> and are expected to be a potential source of bioactive metabolites.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Polycaprolactone/Cellulose Acetate Loaded Psidium guajava Essential Oil Electrospun Nanofibrous Mat Dressing for Healing Wounds 2023-10-31T04:19:45+00:00 Nor Naimah Hussin Noor Suhana Adzahar Thong Chuan Lee Izan Izwan Mison Jayarama Reddy Venugopal <p>Natural products and essential oils of medicinal plants are extensively employed in wound healing, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils obtained from <em>Psidium guajava</em> were utilised as an antibacterial agent against <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, and <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, and to control drug-resistant strains. In this study, electrospinning for applications in antimicrobial activity and drug delivery systems was used to develop biocomposite nanofibers of Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Cellulose Acetate (CA) and<em> Psidium guajava</em> essential oil (PGEO). Images from the FESEM revealed that the mean fire diameters were 120 nm for the PCL/CA and 223 nm for PCL/CA/PGEO biocomposite nanofibers. The diameters of the nanofibers were increased following the addition of PGEO into PCL/CA nanofibers. Furthermore, FTIR studies revealed the -OH peak in pure electrospun PCL/CA and PCL/CA/PGEO, lacking pure PGEO nanofibrous mats. These findings reflect that <em>Psidium guajava</em> essential oil/PCL/CA electrospun nanofibers are promising candidates for presenting bioactive compounds in wound management or other approaches for wound healing and bacterial infections.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effects of Selected Plants Against Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) 2023-10-31T04:19:29+00:00 Nur Syamiila Mohd Arafah Chia Yong Jun Sharizainor Sharina Mohamed Shariff Nor Qhairul Izzreen Mohd Noor Nazikussabah Zaharudin <p>Rice weevils (<em>Sitophilus oryzae</em>) have caused significant damage and losses in rice storage. The use of chemical pesticides to control them has had negative environmental effects and limited efficacy. To address this issue, natural plant-based insect-control alternatives were investigated. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of (<em>Pandanus amaryllifolius</em>), kaffir lime leaves (<em>Citrus hystrix</em>), and “asam gelugor” (<em>Garcinia atroviridis</em>) in repelling, inhibiting feeding, and reducing the offspring of rice weevils. Plant samples were extracted using the soxhlet extraction method, and the crude extracts were concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The extract solutions were then tested for their effects on rice weevils. The results showed that pandan leaves were the most effective, with a repellency percentage of 46.67% and a better anti-progeny effect of 2.175%. Kaffir lime leaves had no effect on rice weevils, while asam keping only showed an anti-progeny effect of 6.525%. The study revealed that low concentrations (0.002 - 0.006 g/mL) of insecticides from pandan extracts could provide a repellency effect against rice weevils. Therefore, plant extracts from Pandanus can be used as botanical insecticides to manage <em>S. oryzae</em> infestations.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Flavonoid Content of Phaleria macrocarpa Fruit and Its Proximate Compositions 2023-10-31T04:18:02+00:00 Siti Salwa Abd Gani Najat Nabilah Noor Ezzuddin Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan Mohd Izuan Effendi Halmi Alyaa Nurathirah Abd Halim <p>Flavonoids are one of the compounds in phenolic compounds in fruits. Flavonoids have been documented to modulate or modify lipid peroxidation, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. Flavonoids also influence anti-inflammatory action, anti-tumour, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-viral, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal effects. In this research, flavonoid content in <em>P. macrocarpa</em> fruits was determined, as well as its proximate compositions. To extract flavonoids in the fruit, <em>P. macrocarpa</em> fruits were extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method using aqueous as a solvent. Total flavonoid content in <em>P. macrocarpa</em> fruit extract was 89.89 ± 3.71 mg QE/100 mL. Proximate analyses were conducted to determine the fruit’s moisture content, ash content, dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, and crude essential oil. Results obtained for proximate composition were 9.45 ± 2.67% (crude protein), 21.633 ± 1.17 (fibre), and 5.605 ± 0.88 (essential oil). Moisture content in this fruit was 88.401 ± 0.749%, the dry matter was 10.96%, and the ash content was 6.33 ± 3.72%. FTIR analysis shows the extract’s functional spectra of phenol, alkane, alkene, and alkyne groups.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Extraction of Oil From Solid Fat of Silver Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Waste by Centrifugation 2023-10-31T04:19:11+00:00 Muhammad Aziq Mohd Azmi Rohana Abu <p>Oil extracted from fish waste could be a source of valuable fatty acids such as saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study, the solid fat from silver catfish (<em>Pangasianodon hypophthalmus</em>) waste was used to extract oil by centrifugation using different extraction solvent (distilled water, 70% ethanol, 70% acetone and 70% cyclohexane), rotation time (15, 25, 35 &amp; 45 min), rotational speed (2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 &amp; 10000 r.p.m) and rotational temperature (5, 10, 15, 20 &amp; 25 °C). The compositions of fatty acids in the extracted oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The highest oil yield of 156.7 ± 16.7 mg/g was achieved by centrifugation at 10000 r.p.m, 25 °C for 15 min using 70% acetone. The extracted oil contains 0.0223 mg/g palmitic acid, 0.0216 mg/g steric acid, and 0.0262 mg/g oleic acid. However, the essential PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could not be detected by GC-MS analysis. This study found that the fish oil extracted from the solid fat of the silver catfish waste can be used as a potential source of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Isolation and Identification of Acetobacter tropicalis From Selected Malaysian Local Fruits for Potential BC Production 2023-10-31T04:17:46+00:00 Tan Yong Jie Junaidi Zakaria Shahril Mohamad Chua Gek Kee Nurshahfiqah Latif Mohd Hairul Ab Rahim <p><em>Acetobacter</em> spp. that are commonly found on fruits, can perform oxidation processes, resulting in acetic acid production in vinegar. Besides that, Acetobacter spp. able to produce bacterial cellulose (BC), which is an essential by-product. This present study was carried out to isolate <em>Acetobacter</em> spp. from selected local fruits. Species verification of the bacterial isolates was performed using molecular and bioinformatic approaches. A total of six local fruits (starfruit, jackfruit, watermelon, pineapple, honeydew &amp; banana) were subjected to seven days of fermentation in a brown sugar solution. <em>Acetobacter</em> spp. were isolated from the fermented medium using bromocresol green ethanol agar as the selective medium. Thirteen bacterial isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular works, including DNA extraction and PCR amplification using universal primers, targeting the 16S rRNA genes. PCR-amplified products were selected for single-pass sequencing. BLASTn analysis of the sequencing results showed three isolates (23.1%) belonging to <em>Acetobacter tropicalis</em> and one isolate (7.7%) representing <em>Gluconobacter oxydans</em> might have potential in BC production. However, the remaining nine isolates (69.2%) hit the <em>Lactobacillus</em> genus. Morphological observation using FESEM showed that the BC produced by all the positive bacterial isolates is similar to dried nata de coco and BC produced by <em>Acetobacter xylinum</em>. In addition, four similar regions of -OH stretch (3400 - 3300 cm<sup>-1</sup>), -CH stretch (2970 to 2800 cm<sup>-1</sup>), -OH bending (1620 cm<sup>-1</sup>), and -COC stretch (1100 to 1073 cm<sup>-1</sup>) are identified in the BC samples. In the future, the isolated Acetobacter and Gluconobacter strains could be further utilized for large-scale BC production in a suitable fermentation medium.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Development of Low Glycemic Index Cookies Made From Functional Cassava Pulp Flour 2023-10-31T04:18:55+00:00 Beni Hidayat Udin Hasanudin Siti Nurdjanah Neti Yuliana Zukryandry <p>One of the food ingredients with the potential to be used as raw material for low glycemic index food is functional cassava pulp flour (FCPF) which has a dietary fiber content of 23.84% and resistant starch of 7.31%. The present research aimed to obtain the optimal substitution concentration of FCPF to produce cookies with the best nutritional, organoleptic, and physical characteristics and a low glycemic index. It was arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six levels of substitution concentration of FCPF, namely, 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. The results showed that the higher the concentration of FCPF substitution, the higher the fiber content, the resistant starch content, and the texture of cookies. Cookies with a 50% FCPF substitute concentration have the same organoleptic quality as those made from wheat flour (6.6 versus 6.9) but with the lowest glycemic index (40.29%). Cookie products with a 50% FCPF formulation are categorized as foods with a low glycemic index.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Study on an Active Functional Group and Antimicrobial Properties From Rhizophora apiculata Extracts Used in Traditional Malay as Medicine 2023-10-31T04:18:19+00:00 Razanah Ramya Suhair Kamoona Farah Ayuni Mohd Hatta Wan Syibrah Hanisah Wan Sulaiman Nur Hanie Mohd Latiff Rashidi Othman <p>A mangrove plant known as <em>Rhizophora apiculata</em> is employed by Malay for treating skin diseases, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea, as an antiseptic, for tanning, and also as fuelwood and fodder. Its large-scale use can be attributed to its high-quality timber, availability as well and the presence of a chemical named tannin that is employed for reinforcing fishing lines, nets, and ropes. The tannin content of <em>R. apiculata</em>'s roots, bark, and leaves is regarded to be a natural inhibitor of fungal infections. This study is focused on determining the different kinds of functional groups, as well as individual phenolic compounds present in <em>R. apiculata</em> for identifying new bioactive compounds via decoding of the traditional values of Malay remedies. There is a high demand for such natural bioactive compounds, particularly in the healthcare and pharmaceutical markets. Alkaline fractional extracts were employed to design an analytical extraction method for <em>R. apiculata</em>. As per the HPLC results, there were three phenolic acids detected namely Caffeic acid, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, and Vanillic acid. Meanwhile, ten volatile compounds were identified by the GCTOF-MS. With regards to antibacterial activity, <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>S. epidermidis</em>, and <em>E. coli</em> were inhibited by <em>R. apiculata</em> leaf extract, while <em>C. albicans</em> and <em>Fusarium</em> sp. were inhibited by their antifungal activity.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dynamics of Yield and Chlorophyll Content of Four Kangkung (Ipomea reptans Poir) Sequences With Soilless Cultivation System Due to Direct and Residual Effects of Vermicompost Application 2023-11-02T11:25:50+00:00 Nurhidayati Masyhuri Machfudz Abu Saad Ansari Pantipa Na Chiangmai <p>The applications of organic fertilizers releasing nutrients slowly not only have a direct impact on the growing crop, but also, residual effects on the subsequent crops in the conventional crop cultivation systems. Studies on the residual effects of organic fertilizer in soilless crop cultivation are quite rare. The present study, which is a pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse, describes the dynamics of yield and chlorophyll content of kangkong as direct and residual effects of vermicompost for four consecutive plantings in soilless crop cultivation, further, compared with inorganic fertilizer treatment. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with different levels of vermicompost rates and a control treatment using inorganic fertilizer. The vermicompost was applied only in the first crop, while, inorganic fertilizer was supplemented in each crop. Fresh weight per plant per pot increases ~35 - 54% at the second planting compared with the first planting, thereafter, gradually decreases in subsequent planting. The content of chlorophyll A was found to be relatively constant, while the chlorophyll B content was highest in the first planting and, thereafter, subsequently decreased in further planting. The higher yields were found at 400 - 500 g pot-1 vermicompost fertilizer dose, insignificantly different from the inorganic fertilizers treatment.</p> 2023-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023