Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Web of Science Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (Myjurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> Malaysian Society of Applied Biology en-US Malaysian Applied Biology 0126-8643 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Andrographis paniculata AQUEOUS EXTRACT AGAINST ORAL PATHOGENS ANIS AMIERA MUHAMAD ALOJID TUAN NOORKORINA TUAN KUB HALIJAH MIRAN SUHARNI MOHAMAD TUAN NADRAH NAIM TUAN ISMAIL @TUAN MANAH MOHAMAD EZANY YUSOFF ROSMANIZA ABDULLAH SITI ASMA’ HASSAN ZETI NORFIDIYATI SALMUNA NUSAADATUN NISAK AHMAD Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 163 167 FISH-DIVERSITY IN THE KURA RIVER OF BANGLADESH: PATTERNS AND THREATS <p><span class="fontstyle0">The study was aimed to investigate the current status and threats of fisheries resources in the Kura River, Bangladesh. Monthly fish catch surveys were carried out from December 2015 to November 2016 in four catchment areas at Hasinarghat, Kandir-dor, Pulertol, and Barartok. In addition, questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions (FGD) were done to clarify perceptions about the Kura River fishery status. A total of 59 fish species from 22 families were documented and of which 27% were threatened. The values of diversity (H</span><span class="fontstyle2">)</span><span class="fontstyle0">, richness (D</span><span class="fontstyle2">), </span><span class="fontstyle0">and evenness </span><span class="fontstyle2">(</span><span class="fontstyle0">J’</span><span class="fontstyle2">) </span><span class="fontstyle0">were calculated at 3.599, 4.345, and 0.921 respectively. The highest catch volume was recorded 19800±7722.71 kg in November 2016 at the Kandirdor and the lowest 225±110.65 kg in March 2016 at the Barartok (</span><span class="fontstyle2">p</span><span class="fontstyle0">&lt;0.05). The upstream blockage (man-made dam) in the Kura River was identified as the main cause of fish habitat change, decrease fish biodiversity, and production of this River. Therefore, the findings of this study exposed that the conservation of fish has become urgent. In this regard, the baseline scenario of the Kura River biodiversity and threats will help to make awareness to take necessary conservation strategy as well as the need for further in-depth study.</span></p> SANZIB KUMAR BARMAN MRITYUNJOY KUNDA SABUJ KANTI MAZUMDER MD NAHIDUZZAMAN PARTHO PROTIM BARMAN SIMON KUMAR DAS Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 1 14 DNA PROFILE OF COMMERCIAL PINEAPPLES IN MALAYSIA BY USING SSR MARKERS <p><span class="fontstyle0">Nine commercial varieties of pineapples in Malaysia (Josapine, Maspine, MD2, Sarawak, Gandul, N36, Moris, Crystal Honey and Yankee) were collected from various places in Peninsular Malaysia and analysed for cultivar identifications using nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 27 alleles have been observed which ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 3 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.3426 (Acom_82.8) to 0.6561 (Acom_67.2) with a mean of 0.4524 while the heterozygosity value ranged from 0.1097 (TsuAC021) to 0.8010 (TsuAC039) with a mean of 0.5481. The pairwise Nei’s genetic distances had also been calculated and the value ranged from 0.0562 (Gandul and Josapine) to 0.6383 (MD2 and Yankee) with an average value of 0.3169. The above data emphasised a moderate level of polymorphisms among the nine varieties. A dendrogram was constructed by using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) which showed all the nine successfully differentiated pineapple commercial varieties. A principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was also had been generated which revealed an agreement with the dendrogram output. Therefore, these nine SSR markers can be used to identify the nine selected commercial varieties to ensure pure planting materials.</span></p> SITI NORHAYATI ISMAIL NURUL SHAMIMI ABDUL GHANI SHAHRIL AB RAZAK RABIATUL ADAWIAH ZAINAL ABIDIN MOHD NIZAM ZUBIR ROZLAILY ZAINOL Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 15 22 PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACT FROM FLOWERS AND LEAVES OF Rhododendron arboreum Sm. FROM NORTHERN THAILAND <p><em> <span class="fontstyle0">Rhododendron arboreum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">Sm. has wide applications in food and beverage, medicines, and cosmetics because the plant contains bioactive phytochemical components. In Thailand, other than for horticultural purposes, scant literature describes the potential applications of this </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">Rhododendron </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">species. Phytochemical composition, biological activity, and cell cytotoxicity of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">R. arboreum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">Sm. flower petal and leaf extracts were determined. Ethanolic extracts of fresh and dried flower petals (FF and DF, respectively) and dried leaves (DL) of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">R. arboreum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">were prepared by maceration with 60% ethanol for 7 days. Extraction yields of both FF and DF were higher than DL (19.22, 16.76, and 8.50% for FF, DF, and DL, respectively). Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening showed different compositions in diverse plant parts. Saponins and tannins were present in every extract, with anthraquinones detected only in flowers and terpenoids only in leaves. Total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC) were highest in DL (405.21 mg gallic acid equivalent and 127.30 mg catechin equivalent per g of dry extract, respectively), followed by DF and FF. Antioxidant properties were determined using two radical scavenging assays as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). Results indicated that all extracts exhibited better inhibitory activity against DPPH radical than ABTS radical as evidenced by lower IC</span><span class="fontstyle2">50 </span><span class="fontstyle2">range 24.65-48.15 ìg/mL for DPPH and 65.19-76.36 ìg/mL for ABTS, respectively. A positive correlation coefficient between the two antioxidant assays and TPC and TFC of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">Rhododendron </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">extracts indicated antioxidant potential distributed in both components. No cytotoxicity was recorded in the three extracts, with concentrations less than 500 μg/mL for both 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and CellTiter-Blue</span><span class="fontstyle2">® </span><span class="fontstyle2">assay. </span><span class="fontstyle0">In vitro </span><span class="fontstyle2">studies<br />exhibited dose-dependent and strong anti-melanogenic and anti-inflammatory activities ranging from 50 to 250 μg/mL for FF, DF, and DL. Results identified various bioactive constituents with potential biological activity (antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anti-melanogenic), while non-cytotoxicity in </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">R. arboreum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">flower and leaf extracts suggested the possibility of further applications as a functional ingredient in cosmetics.</span></p> SUPANIDA WINITCHA SIRILUCK LIENGPRAYOON WARAWUT SUPHAMITMONGKOL NADDAMAS TOMORN JATUPORN CHAIYUT TUKSIN LERKSAMRAN YUTTHANA BANCHONG PIYAPAT TRISONTHI SAFIAH SAAH NATEDAO MUSIGAMART Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 23 37 TUALANG HONEY MODULATED NOCICEPTIVE RESPONSES IN THE THALAMUS OF REM SLEEP DEPRIVATION RAT MODEL <p>Sleep deprivation has been shown to alter pain responses in humans and animals. The present study investigated whether the administration of Tualang honey in the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation rat model would modulate nociceptive responses with associated changes in the thalamus. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley male rats were randomised into four groups (n=12 for each group): control group (FMC), REM sleep deprivation (REMsd), REM sleep deprivation pretreated with Tualang Honey for 1 month (REMsdH) and tank control (TC). Following sleep deprivation for 72 hours, a formalin test was conducted and pain behaviour was recorded and analysed. The rats were sacrificed, and the brains were removed for histological examination and assessment of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA R2) level in the thalamus. REMsdH group showed a significantly lower level of pain behaviour score and NMDA R2 compared to the REMsd group (p&lt;0.05). In addition, REMsdH also demonstrated a significantly higher number of Nissl stained neurons in comparison with the REMsd group (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, dark neurons, suggestive of neuronal damage, were observed in the REMsd group. In conclusion, administration of Tualang honey before REM sleep deprivation modulated nociceptive responses and prevent changes in thalamic neurons and NMDA R2 level.</p> ANIS SYAHIRAH MOHD SHAFIE CHE BADARIAH ABD AZIZ LIZA NOORDIN IDRIS LONG ANANI AILA MAT ZAIN ROSFAIIZAH SIRAN Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 39 47 TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF SELECTED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN SERGESTID SHRIMPS’ HABITAT ALONG COASTAL WATER OF MIRI, SARAWAK, MALAYSIAN BORNEO <p><span class="fontstyle0">Evidences have shown that coastal water as habitat that support various flora and fauna as well as nursery ground which highlight the importance of water quality monitoring that act as basis for productivity of fisheries. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the temporal and spatial variations of selected water quality parameters in sergestid shrimp’s habitat along the coastal water of Miri, Sarawak. Nine water quality parameters namely dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, turbidity, pH, salinity, chlorophyll </span><span class="fontstyle2">a </span><span class="fontstyle0">(chl </span><span class="fontstyle2">a</span><span class="fontstyle0">), total suspended solid (TSS), nitrate (NO</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">3-</span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">) and orthophosphate (PO</span><span class="fontstyle0"><sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup></span><span class="fontstyle0">) were measured in four stations along Miri coastal water. The variation explained by the principal component analysis had a total variance of 55.95%. The PC1 shows that the waters in July 2017, September 2017, October 2017, December 2017 and January 2018 were characterized with high turbidity and TSS as well as low temperature and salinity. In contrast, stations in November 2017, March 2018 and April 2018 had warmer and clear water with high salinity reading, whereby blooms of sergestid shrimps were observed in March and April 2018. The PC2 result shows that in May 2017 and June 2017, coastal waters were characterized with low pH reading. Overall, the water quality parameters measured in all stations were close to the standard value of Class E of Malaysian Marine Water Quality Standards (MMWQS).</span></p> RUHANA HASSAN MUHAMMAD NUR ARIF OTHMAN Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 MODELLING THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL CUES FOR THE BLOOM OF SERGESTID SHRIMP Acetes (DECAPODA: SERGESTIDAE) IN COASTAL WATER OF MIRI, SARAWAK, MALAYSIAN BORNEO <p><span class="fontstyle0">The sergestid shrimp (</span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Acetes</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">spp.) shows the annual peak season from February to April. This krill-like shrimp, locally known as ‘bubok’, is one of the commercially important fisheries in Miri, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Previous researchers had reported patchy data on the environmental factors and <em>Acetes</em> distribution in Miri-Bintulu adjacent areas. Moreover, insufficient analysis has led to the inability to conduct sustainable management strategies for </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Acetes </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">fisheries. Therefore, this study is designed to explore the mathematical model usage to understand the interaction between selected water quality parameters and zooplankton assemblages with the </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Acetes</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">population in the coastal water of Miri. Selected temporal biotic and abiotic data were collected using standard methods and later subjected to mathematical time series analysis called the Granger causality test. The results show bi-directional Granger causality between the abundance of </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Acetes</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">and dissolved oxygen (DO). Interaction between other water quality parameters (temperature, salinity, turbidity, pH, TSS and </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Chlorophyll </em><em>a</em></span><span class="fontstyle0">) with the abundance of </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Acetes</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">has also emerged. The number of zooplankton in the water column, namely </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Centropages</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Euterpina</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Oithona rigida</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Oncaea </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">shows a significant causality towards the abundance of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Acetes</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">. The findings imply that complex interaction between biotic and abiotic factors exists during the bloom of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Acetes </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">in Miri; thus, relevant agencies should step up measures to ensure sustainable management of the coastal areas where </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Acetes</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">bloom occurs.</span></p> ABANG MOHAMMAD HUDZAIFAH ABANG SHAKAWI MUHAMMAD NUR ARIF OTHMAN RUHANA HASSAN CHENG ANN CHEN Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 57 67 LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF RIVER SPRATS, Clupeichthys sp. FROM TASIK KENYIR, TERENGGANU, MALAYSIA <p>The length-weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor for river sprat, <em>Clupeichtys</em> sp. from Tasik Kenyir was determined and qualitatively compared with the other known species within the genus in Southeast Asia. A total of 408 individuals were collected from the mouth of Sungai Cacing, one of the main feeder rivers in Tasik Kenyir. Total length of the individuals ranges from 2.80 to 4.60 cm, while their body weight ranging from 0.10 to 0.80 grams. The mean of the total length is 3.80 ± 0.32 while the mean for total weight is 0.50 ± 0.20. The growth pattern for this species was given by the b value of 2.94, which is slightly lower than that of the reported b values for <em>C. aesarnensis</em> (3.27 and 3.21) from Thailand, but higher than that of the reported b value for <em>Clupeichthys goniognathus</em> (2.67) from Indonesia. The relative condition factor was 1.01 ± 0.23, almost similar to other reported values for <em>Clupeichthys</em> spp. in Southeast Asia.&nbsp; This is the first report on the length-weight relationship and condition factor of river sprat from this genus in Peninsular Malaysia.</p> MOHAMAD AQMAL-NASER MUHAMMAD FAHMI-AHMAD AMIRRUDIN AHMAD Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 69 75 COMPARISON OF BOILING, STEAMING, AIR FRYING, DEEP-FRYING, MICROWAVING AND OVEN-COOKING ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF KEROPOK LEKOR (MALAYSIAN FISH SAUSAGE) <p><em><span class="fontstyle0">Keropok lekor </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">(</span><em><span class="fontstyle0">KL</span></em><span class="fontstyle2">) (Malaysian fish sausage) is usually boiled and then deep-fried for consumption. The combination of these cooking methods could produce greasy and fatty products thus negatively affect health in a long term. Other cooking methods could be better alternatives to the common methods. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of six cooking methods namely boiling, steaming, air frying, deep-frying, microwaving and oven-cooking on the </span><span class="fontstyle0"><em>KL</em> </span><span class="fontstyle2">quality. The cooked samples were analysed for the moisture, fat, linear expansion, cooking yield, water holding capacity, colour, texture and sensory properties. Boiling showed the highest linear expansion (3.02%), cooking yield (104.10%) and water holding capacity (41.04%). Meanwhile, deep frying significantly reduced (</span><span class="fontstyle0">p</span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt;0.05) the moisture (39.83%) and increased the fat (6.58%) contents, exhibited harder texture (93.13N) and showed a higher yellowness value (8.23) compared to other cooking methods. No significant difference (</span><span class="fontstyle0">p</span><span class="fontstyle2">&gt;0.05) was found in other properties; however, panellists significantly (</span><span class="fontstyle0">p</span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt;0.05) preferred the crispiness and overall acceptability of the deep-fried followed by oven-cooked </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">KL</span></em><span class="fontstyle2">. Indeed, textures and colours had significant (</span><span class="fontstyle0">p</span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt;0.05) relationships with sensory properties. In conclusion, deep-frying and oven-cooking reduced the moisture content and increased the hardness of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">KL</span></em><span class="fontstyle2">, which increased the panelists’ preferences. However, deep-fried </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">KL </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">had a higher fat content due to the cooking with oil; therefore, the oven-cooked </span><span class="fontstyle0"><em>KL</em> </span><span class="fontstyle2">can be the healthier alternative.</span></p> MARINA MOHD TAMSIR NURUL SHAZINI RAMLI NOR KHAIZURA MAHMUD AB RASHID RADHIAH SHUKRI MOHAMMAD RASHEDI ISMAIL-FITRY Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 77 85 PRE AND POST CONTROL OF WEEDY RICE AND SELECTED RICE WEEDS WITH PREMIX OF IMAZAPIC AND IMAZAPYR AT DIFFERENT RATIOS <p><span class="fontstyle0">Field experiments were conducted in the rice fields of the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute in 2018 and 2019, to determine the efficacy of two commercial premix herbicides consisting of imazapic and imazapyr at 70:30 (formulation 1) and 30:70 (formulation 2) applied singly or in sequence for control of weedy rice and other rice weeds. Formulation 1 was applied as PRE at the 0 to 1-leaf stage of weedy rice while formulation 2 was applied as POST at the 3 to 4-leaf stage of weedy rice. Formulation 1 applied PRE at 150 g ai ha</span><span class="fontstyle0"><sup>-1</sup> </span><span class="fontstyle0">with or without sequential application of formulation 2 applied POST at 75 or 150 g ai ha</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">-1 </span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">provided complete inhibition of weedy rice. The same rate of formulation 1 applied PRE highly reduced weed density and dry weight of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Monochoria vaginalis </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">(99%) and </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Fimbristylis quinquangularis </em></span><span class="fontstyle0">(93%) as compared to weedy check plots. Formulation 2 applied POST at 150 g ai ha</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">-1 </span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">providing lower weed density and dry weight reduction of weedy rice (59 to 65%), </span><span class="fontstyle2">M. vaginalis </span><span class="fontstyle0">(80 to 81%), and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">F. quinquangularis </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">(56 to 64%) as compared to those observed in formulation 1 applied PRE at 150 g ai ha</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">-1</span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">. These results suggest that although formulations 1 and 2 share the same active ingredients, excellent control of weedy rice and rice weeds could only be achieved with PRE application of formulation 1 at 150 g ai ha</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">-1</span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">.</span></p> DILIPKUMAR MASILAMANY ERWAN SHAH SHARI NG LEE CHUEN CHUAH TSE SENG BHAGIRATH SINGH CHAUNAN Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 87 93 ADDITION OF MILK ENHANCED THE TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF Camellia sinensis (GREEN TEA) BEVERAGES <p><span class="fontstyle0">The study was aimed to determine the effects of adding milk, sugar and sweeteners to the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Camellia Sinensis</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">(green tea) powder. Six green tea samples were brewed in cold water and whisked: Green tea powder (G), green tea powder with sugar (GS), green tea powder with aspartame (GA), green tea powder with milk (GM), green tea powder with milk and sugar (GMS) and green tea powder with milk and aspartame (GMA). The total phenolic content of green tea powder samples was evaluated by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay while </span><span class="fontstyle3">α</span><span class="fontstyle0">,</span><span class="fontstyle3">α</span><span class="fontstyle0">-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to measure the antioxidant activity. Results showed that milk addition significantly enhanced by 59.84% of total phenolic content and also increased 26.3% (DPPH) and 42.35% (FRAP) of antioxidant activity of green tea powder, as compared to green tea samples without milk (</span><span class="fontstyle2">p</span><span class="fontstyle0">&lt;0.05). Strong and positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of green tea powder by using DPPH (</span><span class="fontstyle2">r</span><span class="fontstyle0">=0.990) and FRAP assays (</span><span class="fontstyle2">r</span><span class="fontstyle0">=0.997). In conclusion, it might be beneficial when milk is added to green tea as it could help to increase its antioxidant properties.</span></p> KEE XIAO HUI SITI RAIHANAH SHAFIE Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 95 104 AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY ON INDIGENOUS FOOD FLAVOURINGS AND AROMATIC ENHANCING PLANTS USED BY THE NATIVE COMMUNITIES OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF SARAWAK <p><span class="fontstyle0">The uses of indigenous plants vary amongst native communities, from being consumed as vegetables, used as flavourings or added as an aromatic enhancer. However, records of their traditional use are sparse and most of the native knowledge on applications of these indigenous plants has not been passed down to later generations. The present study aims to record and identify communal knowledge from the Central Region of Sarawak with regards to the use of indigenous plants as food flavourings or aromatic enhancers. Face-to-face interviews with 150 respondents were conducted in a semi-structured manner to obtain the required information. A total of 27 plant species from 20 families were identified for their use by native people as food flavouring or aromatic enhancement. Zingiberaceae was found to be the most prevalent family of plants in this study with a representation of four species. Leaves were the part of the plants most commonly utilized by natives for flavouring purposes with 12 species being utilized in this manner. The mode of cooking varies within the community according to a preference for taste and aroma intensity as well as inherited oral knowledge passed down from older generations. This study recommends a full nutrient content analysis for the identified plant species shortly.</span></p> NURUL AISYAH YUSLI NOORASMAH SAUPI SHIAMALA DEVI RAMAIYA YU ABIT LIRONG Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 105 115 GERMINATION AND INITIAL GROWTH OF TRUE SHALLOT (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) SEEDS ENCAPSULATED WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MATERIALS <p><span class="fontstyle0">Shallot (</span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Allium cepa </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">L. var. </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">aggregatum</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">) cultivation is performed using True Shallot Seed (TSS) to obtain seedlings. However, it is difficult to handle when sowing directly, due to the seed’s small and irregular shape. Therefore, encapsulation technology is needed to make TSS seeds have a larger size and regular shape. Shallots seeds enable to be more significant, roundshaped through encapsulation. This research was conducted to make a combination treatment between fillers and adhesives that can form strong, round, and smooth capsules. The fillers studied included gypsum, dolomite, lime, vermicompost, compost, and sawdust. While the adhesive material is Arabic gum and polyvinyl alcohol. The parameters observed include viability, germination, vigor index, and maximum growth potential of encapsulated seed were on par with non-encapsulated in germination and seedling vigor. The results showed that the germination, index vigor, and maximum growth potency of non-encapsulated TSS were better than the encapsulated ones. Likewise for the percentage of seed alive and up-normal seed. Furthermore, the organic type of capsule filling material showed better results compared to the inorganic</span></p> PANGESTI NUGRAHANI IDA RETNO MOELJANI MAKHZIAH Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 117 122 ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION OF SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND RELATIONSHIPS OF SOIL PROPERTIES FROM DIFFERENT AGRICULTURE FIELD IN UNIVERSITY CAMPUS AND PRIVATE FARM IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA <p><span class="fontstyle0">The invertebrate species play different roles above and below ground in a soil ecosystem. They are also responsible for a complex interaction, which is manifested in soils as self-organized systems of different sizes and functions. These invertebrates are sensitive to any changes in land management activities and soil physio-chemical properties. Therefore, the current study aims to examine the ecosystem functions of soil invertebrates from different agriculture fields and establish the relationships of soil physio-chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from four different fields: three are from the main campus, namely Universiti Putra Malaysia (Center of Environmental and Forensic Studies (CEFS), papaya and organic farm), and one is from Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. The soil physical properties, such as moisture, temperature, particle size, bulk density, and soil porosity, were recorded. Soil chemical properties (EC, pH, total C&amp;N, C/N ratio, organic matter, extractable P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na, CEC) were also determined. Pitfall traps and Berlese funnel were used as sampling methods. The invertebrates were stored in 70% ethanol and identified using soil invertebrate morphological classification, which was classified based on body size and biological functional groups. Macrofauna composition in the papaya farm was abundant from other sites at 80.44%, and ecosystem engineers comprised 39.56%. By contrast, mesofauna was abundant with 43.22% in organic farms, and litter transformers were abundant in CEFS at 54.05%. Meanwhile, microfauna was high in organic farms at 2.85%. Predatory populations were also high in Nilai farm at 49.29%. The CCA analysis showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil influence soil fauna density and diversity. The present finding concludes that the activities of ecosystem functions of soil invertebrates were considerably affected by agricultural and management activities</span></p> ABRAR S MAQTAN HISHAMUDDIN OMAR MUSKHAZLI MUSTAFA NUR AIN IZZATI MOHD ZAINUDIN Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 123 133 EFFICACY OF LIVE ATTENUATED FOWL ADENOVIRUS SEROTYPE 8B ISOLATE OF MALAYSIA IN SPECIFIC PATHOGEN-FREE CHICKENS <p><span class="fontstyle0">Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) is the primary agent of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) in poultry and caused serious economic impact due to high mortality and poor productivity. To date, clinical cases of IBH in chickens increases over the years in Malaysia, thus, an effective local vaccine to control the disease outbreak is in dire need. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of live attenuated FAdV serotype 8b isolate, UPM1137CEL35, in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Attenuated isolate UPM1137CEL35 conferred full protection against the virulent FAdV isolate, UPM11134 in the vaccinated chickens. Neither clinical signs nor mortality were recorded in all vaccinated groups. However, in the challenged unvaccinated group, chickens showed clinical signs of weakness, reduced feed consumption, and lateral recumbency at day 4 to 7 postchallenge. Additionally, the body weight was low significantly (</span><span class="fontstyle2">p</span><span class="fontstyle0">&lt;0.05) compared to the challenged vaccinated groups. Upon necropsy, the liver from the challenged unvaccinated group was pale at peripheral bilateral lobes with the presence of focal lymphoid aggregation microscopically, while, challenged vaccinated groups were normal without significant changes. All vaccinated chickens were protected from disease manifestations with antibody response compared to the challenged unvaccinated group. It was concluded that the attenuated FAdV isolate, UPM1137CEL35, has a high potential to be used as a vaccine against the FAdV serotype 8b of Malaysian isolates.</span></p> NORFITRIAH MOHAMED SOHAIMI MOHD HAIR BEJO Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 135 143 ELUCIDATING THE ROLE OF THE SATB1 GENE IN BREAST CANCER CARCINOGENESIS IN THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF TOCOTRIENOL-RICH FRACTION: EVIDENCE FROM A SYNGENEIC MOUSE MODEL OF BREAST CANCER <p><span class="fontstyle0">Tocotrienols are reported to possess anticancer activities. Recently we showed that the anticancer effects of tocotrienolrich fraction (TRF) may be through inhibition of the </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">(</span><em><span class="fontstyle2">SATB1</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">) gene in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer (BC). The present study aims to further explore the role of the <em>SATB1</em> gene in murine BC cells. The expression of the </span><span class="fontstyle2">SATB1 </span><span class="fontstyle0">gene in the 4T1 murine BC cells was partially knocked down (SATB1-4T1) using the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology and these cells were injected into the mammary pads of mice. Control groups were injected with wild-type 4T1 (WT 4T1) cells. When the tumour was palpable, half of the mice in both groups were fed daily with 1 mg TRF and received intraperitoneal injections of dendritic cells pulsed with tumour lysate (DC+TL) once a week for three weeks. The tumour incidence in mice injected with the SATB1-4T1 cells was reduced (</span><span class="fontstyle2">p</span><span class="fontstyle0">&lt;0.05) and this effect was independent of TRF supplementation. However, in mice injected with WT-4T1, there was inhibition of tumour growth (</span><span class="fontstyle2">p</span><span class="fontstyle0">&lt;0.05) only in the group fed with TRF. In addition, the expression of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">S1004A </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and mutant </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">P53 </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">genes were suppressed in tumours from animals that were injected with the SATB1-4T1 cells, irrespective of TRF supplementation; which was also observed in tumours from mice injected with WT 4T1 cells and fed with TRF. These findings suggest that TRF may work through the SATB1 pathway.</span></p> SITTI RAHMA ABDUL HAFID AMMU KUTTY RADHAKRISHNAN Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 50 3 145 161