Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Clarivate Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (MyJurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in <strong>Scopus</strong> since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> Malaysian Society of Applied Biology en-US Malaysian Applied Biology 0126-8643 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA)-PRODUCING, CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER <p class="p1">Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are linear bio-esters produce in nature by certain microorganisms particularly when subjected to limited nutrients sources such as nitrogen while carbon sources are at abundance. PHA has attracted tremendous amount of attention from scientists globally due to their biodegradable property as environment-friendly alternative to petrochemical based plastics. However, the biggest drawback in using PHA is their high production cost. The aims of this study are to assess and characterise PHA-producing bacteria from municipal wastewater and compare their efficiencies in PHA production. A total of 34 out of 282 bacterial isolates from wastewater showed the ability to produce PHA using Sudan Black B staining. These isolates were then subjected to cellulase activity screen using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) agar. Two out of the 34 isolates were showed promising cellulose degrading capability and the cellulolytic activities were studied at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation respectively. The PHA production efficiencies of both isolates UiTM-E1 and UiTM-E2 were then compared using mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 1% and 2% glucose at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubations respectively. Isolate UiTM-E2 showed the highest PHA production at 36.93% of its cell-dry weight (CDW) at 48 hours incubation.</p> ERNIE EILEEN RIZLAN ROSS ISHAK ZUBIR WAN RAZARINAH WAN ABDUL RAZAK FARIDA ZURAINA MOHD YUSOF Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 17 24 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2186 BIODEGRADATION OF METHYLENE BLUE BY BACTERIA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL <p class="p1">Methylene blue is one of the textile dyes that are commonly used in the textile coloring industry. The discharge of textile wastewater containing residual textile coloring substances into the environment can lead to environmental pollution. Thus, bioremediation can be a solution to reduce dye pollution by using bacterial strains. In the present study, two bacterial strains with the ability to degrade methylene blue dye were isolated from contaminated soil. Both isolated bacteria were further evaluated for the dye decolorization percentage and the effect of abiotic parameters on bacterial growth. The isolated bacteria were incubated in a mineral salt medium added with methylene blue dye for eight days in static aerobic conditions. The dye degradation was examined by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer at 665 nm. The isolated bacteria were identified as <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> strain UMTFA1 (EK) and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> strain UMTFA2 (EP) using 16s rRNA sequencing. The biodegradation study showed that <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> strain UMTFA1 (EK) and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> strain UMTFA2 (EP) were capable to degrade 10.52% and 11.65% of methylene blue dye after 8 days of incubation, respectively. The present study may provide a basis for biotreatment and bioremediation of dye-contaminated soils.</p> FAZILAH ARIFFIN NUR EQA MARDIHAH CHE ANUAR Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 25 35 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2190 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND DIETARY CHOICES IN A PREDOMINANTLY CHINESE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS POPULATION IN KLANG VALLEY <p class="p1">Climate change is a public health threat that is aggravated by the food supply chain. A dietary shift to climate-friendly foods is a feasible strategy to mitigate it. This study aimed to investigate the associations between knowledge, attitude, perception towards climate change, and barriers to climate-friendly foods with dietary choices of university students in Klang Valley. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 303 Malaysian university students (71.9% Chinese) aged 18 to 30 years in Klang Valley, by using Google form to assess knowledge, attitude, perception towards climate change, barriers to climate-friendly food, and climate-friendly dietary choices. The average climate-friendly diet score (CFDS) was 0.36±2.21, with a significantly higher CFDS among females than males (<em>p</em>=0.012). The majority of them were having good knowledge (76.6%), a good attitude (66.3%), and a moderate level of perception (62.0%) towards climate change. About two-thirds of them reported social media as the main (63.0%) and preferred (63.7%) sources to receive information about climate change. Through multiple linear regression, barriers to climate-friendly food choices (<em>β</em>=-0.084; <em>p</em>&lt;0.001) significantly contributed to climate-friendly dietary choices (<em>F</em>=4.215; <em>p</em>&lt;0.001), whereby 14.9% of the variances were climate-friendly dietary choices of university students. Findings could be incorporated into dietary education to tackle barriers to climate-friendly foods among university students.</p> LING JUN LEE SERENE EN HUI TUNG WAN YING GAN SATVINDER KAUR Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 37 45 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2275 PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis sp. IN CATTLE, GOAT AND SHEEP REARED BY DIFFERENT FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN PAHANG, MALAYSIA <p class="p1"><em>Blastocystis</em> sp. is a familiar parasite in the gastrointestinal tract causing infection in humans and animals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the <em>Blastocystis</em> sp. prevalence in three sorts of livestock; cattle, goats, and sheep in Pahang, Malaysia, which are reared under two management systems; intensive and semi-intensive farm management system. About 92, 96, and 65 cattle, goat, and sheep fecal samples respectively were collected from different farms around Kuantan, Bera, and Pekan. The fecal samples were cultured in Jones’ medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated horse serum and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 weeks, then observed under light microscopy daily. The total prevalence of <em>Blastocystis</em> sp. was 29.34% in cattle (27/92), 29.16% in goats (28/96), and 43.07% in sheep (28/65). Supported the results of this study, <em>Blastocystis</em> sp. prevalence was higher in sheep and livestock reared by a semi-intensive farm management system (44.38%). However, further study could be done for <em>Blastocystis</em> sp. subtypes identification to determine its genetic diversity. Notwithstanding, this study has provided additional knowledge on the prevalence of each livestock reared in farms around Pahang that serve as important information in understanding host-parasite relationships, besides determining the best farm management system to be applied by farmers.</p> NURATIQAH ABD RAZAK MARDHIAH MOHAMMAD Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 47 55 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2165 ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND TOTAL PHENOLS OF WILD POINSETTIA (Euphorbia heterophylla) AS POTENTIAL TEA INFUSION PRODUCT <p class="p1">The use of wild poinsettia (<em>Euphorbia heterophylla</em>) is known as a traditional medicinal ingredient. The potential of this plant is the latex which can be used as a protease enzyme and the leaves can be used as herbal tea or tea infusion. To provide the potential of dried wild poinsettia, the total phenols and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity was assessed by DPPH assays. Phytochemical screening of dried wild poinsettia leaves which were dried at different temperatures (50 ºC &amp; 60 ºC) and drying times (2, 3, &amp; 4 h) showed total phenols and antioxidant capacity which have potential health properties and benefits on human health, such as anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, anticancer, and as antimicrobial agents. The antioxidant activity values varied from 40.07 – 56.50%, and the highest values (56.50 ± 2.35) were obtained at 50 ºC for 2 h of the drying process. Total phenols in those tea leave varied from 11.47 – 13.41 mg GAE/g. The highest phenol content (13.41 ± 0.30 mg GAE/g) was found in dried tea leaves which were dried at 60 ºC for 4 h of the drying process. According to the result, the significant inverse linear correlation (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) was confirmed between treatments of drying duration, while not in the temperature. Generally, these dried leaves have a high antioxidant capacity and total phenol content and may be an important food source as tea infused with antioxidant phenolic compounds to prevent oxidative stress diseases.</p> R AMILIA DESTRYANA DYAH AYU FAJARIANINGTYAS ARYO WIBISONO YULI WITONO IWAN TARUNA MARIA BELGIS Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 57 62 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2225 EXPRESSION OF BCL-2 AND BAX GENES INDUCED BY AN OVARIAN EXTRACT OF SINGKARAK LAKE PUFFERFISH (Tetraodon leiurus) IN BREAST CANCER CELL <p class="p1">It is known that the ovarian extract of Singkarak Lake Pufferfish <em>(Tetraodon leiurus)</em> has the potential for chemoprevention in MCF-7 cells. However, the expression of <em>Bcl-2</em> and <em>Bax</em> genes was associated with cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the <em>Bcl-2</em> and <em>Bax</em> gene expression induced by the ovarian extract of Singkarak Lake Pufferfish <em>(Tetraodon leiurus)</em> in MCF-7. The method in this study was an in vitro experiment using MCF-7 control cells and MCF-7 cells induced by the ovarian extract of Singkarak Lake Pufferfish <em>(Tetraodon leiurus)</em>, and Real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of <em>Bcl-2</em> and <em>Bax</em> genes. The result showed that the expression of the <em>Bcl-2</em> gene had an insignificant decrease (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) by 15%, and the expression of the <em>Bax</em> gene had a significant increase (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) by 489% compared to the control. These results support that ovarian extract Singkarak Lake Pufferfish <em>(Tetraodon leiurus)</em> can be alternative cancer chemoprevention. <span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> MONICA MULNIA HANIF DJONG HON TJONG SYAIFULLAH PUTRA SANTOSO EFRIZAL DEWI IMELDA ROESMA Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 63 69 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2283 EVALUATION OF TOXICITY AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF Andrographis paniculata HERBAL MOUTHWASH AGAINST ORAL PATHOGENS <p class="p1"><em>Andrographis paniculata</em> (AP) is an ancient herb known for its medicinal and therapeutic values. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of AP herbal mouthwash. Aqueous extract of AP was used to prepare the herbal mouthwash. The product was tested against selected oral pathogens namely <em>Actinomyeces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus</em>, and<em> Porphyromonas gingivalis </em>for its antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Toxicity analysis was carried out and subjected to cytotoxicity screening using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, <em>in vivo</em> study using brine shrimp lethality bioassay, and detection of heavy metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Five AP herbal mouthwash concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/mL) were developed. AP herbal mouthwash exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against <em>A. viscosus. </em>AP herbal mouthwash (125 to 1000 mg/mL) showed inhibition against <em>P. gingivalis, S. mutans </em>and<em> S. sobrinus</em>, except for <em>S. aureus</em> which did not reflect any sign of antibacterial activity. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, AP herbal mouthwash has LC<sub>50</sub> 3255.064 µg/mL. <em>In vitro</em> cytotoxic evaluation was done on L929 mouse fibroblast cell lines using MTT assay with IC<sub>50</sub> 43.55 mg/mL denotes the mouthwash is non-toxic. Heavy metals content in AP herbal mouthwash falls within the permissible range of plumbum (2.50 ppm) followed by arsenic (1.875 ppm), mercury (0.15 ppm), and cadmium (0.06 ppm). Thus, verifying AP herbal mouthwash is effective in common oral pathogens and has a non-toxic effect.</p> ANIS AMIERA MUHAMAD ALOJID TUAN NOORKORINA TUAN KUB HALIJAH MIRAN SUHARNI MOHAMAD TUAN NADRAH NAIM TUAN ISMAIL MOHAMAD EZANY YUSOFF ROSMANIZA ABDULLAH SITI ASMA’ HASSAN ZETI NORFIDIYATI SALMUNA NUSAADATUN NISAK AHMAD Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 71 78 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2263 FATTY ACIDS AND TERPENOIDS FROM Canarium odontophyllum MIQ. LEAF AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS ON UVB-INDUCED IMMORTALIZED HUMAN KERATINOCYTES CELLS (HACAT) <p class="p1">The study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of hexane extract of <em>Canarium odontophyllum</em> Miq. leaf; its fatty acids and terpenoids content; and cytotoxic effects on UVB-induced human keratinocytes (HaCaT). FRAP assay was used to determine antioxidant capacity. GC-MS analysis to identify the fatty acids and terpenoids’ in the hexane extract of <em>Canarium odontophyllum</em> Miq. leaf. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was carried out to measure the cytotoxic effects of the extract on UVB-induced human keratinocytes. Serial doses of up to 1000 µg/mL extract were administered before UVB irradiation of the cells. FRAP assay showed the extract was found to exhibit antioxidant activity but no significant difference in ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) between dose 500 µg/mL (5.00 ± 0.35 AEAC) and 1000 µg/mL (5.70 ± 0.29 AEAC) extract. GC-MS analysis showed the extract contained 88.93% of fatty acids and terpenoids, especially n-hexadecanoic acid, spathulenol, and phytol. MTT assay showed no IC<sub>50</sub> value for the tested extract dose on UVB-induced HaCaT. Thus, the results suggest the potential application of hexane extract of <em>C. odontophyllum</em> Miq. leaf in terpenoids’ studies. In-depth research and isolation of compounds of interest should be done to develop it as a viable medical phytotherapeutic agent.</p> MUHAMMAD WAHIZUL HASWAN ABDUL AZIZ DAYANG FREDALINA BASRI SITI FATHIAH MASRE AHMAD ROHI GHAZALI Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 79 87 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2377 CHARACTERIZATION AND MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS OF Fusarium spp. FROM HIGHLAND AREAS IN MALAYSIA <p class="p1"><em>Fusarium </em>isolates from highland areas in Malaysia were mostly recovered from two species of grasses,<em> Elyhordeum montanense</em> and <em>Paspalum conjugatum</em>. The isolates were grouped into four morphological groups.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Based on TEF-1α sequences, morphotype 1 isolates were molecularly identified as <em>F. graminearum </em>species complex, morphotype 2 as <em>F. venenatum, </em>morphotype 3 as <em>F. avenaceum </em>and morphotype 4 as <em>F. kyushuense. <span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></em> Restriction analysis of the Intergenic Spacer region showed high levels of genetic diversity of isolates in <em>F. graminearum</em> species complex and <em>F. venenatum. </em>For mycotoxin analysis, only <em>F. avenaceum</em> and <em>F. kyushuense </em>produced beauvericin and moniliformin (0.869 &amp; 0.321 µg/kg, respectively). Zearalenone was produced by 32 isolates of <em>F. graminearum</em> species complex (0.002 – 0.437 µg/kg), two isolates of <em>F. venenatum </em>(0.006 - 0.014 µg/kg) and <em>F. kyushuense<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></em> (0.006 µg/kg). Only <em>F. avenaceum </em>isolate produced fumonisin B1 (0.001 µg/kg).<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>The present study indicates the occurrence of <em>Fusarium </em>species commonly reported in highland areas in Malaysia where the weather is cooler and the temperature is lower than in the lowland areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of phylogenetic species within <em>F. graminearum</em> species complex, <em>F. venenatum, F. avenaceum </em>and <em>F. kyushuense </em>in Malaysia<em>.</em></p> NURHAZRIATI MANSHOR NURUL FARIZAH AZUDDIN MASRATUL HAWA MOHD NIK MOHD IZHAM MOHAMED NOR LATIFFAH ZAKARIA Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 89 106 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2237 MULTIPLE ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE AMONG DORPER SHEEP DETECTED WITH PHENOTYPIC MARKERS AGAINST PARASITIC GASTROENTERITIS <p class="p1">Parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) is a significant disease that affects small ruminant production. PGE is controlled exclusively by chemical anthelmintics but restricted by anthelmintic resistance. Hence, dependence on anthelmintics needs to be reduced. This study aimed to investigate the anthelmintic resistance status of a Dorper sheep farm while determining the phenotypic markers of resistance to PGE. Sheep that met the criteria of the Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) were divided into a control and four treatment groups of 11 to 13 animals per group. Faecal and blood samples at pre- and post-treatments were subjected to faecal egg counts (FEC), faecal culture, packed cell volume (PCV) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC). The data were analysed by Spearman rank correlation and two-way ANOVA. FECRT showed resistance towards albendazole, levamisole, fenbendazole and ivermectin which was predominated by <em>Haemonchus contortus</em>. Significant negative correlations were observed between FEC and PCV in control (<em>r</em>=-0.88, <em>p</em>&lt;0.01), fenbendazole (<em>r</em>=-0.58, <em>p</em>&lt;0.01) and ivermectin (<em>r</em>=-0.69, <em>p</em>&lt;0.01) groups. Significant positive correlations were detected between FEC and PEC in control (<em>r</em>=0.95, <em>p</em>&lt;0.01) and levamisole (<em>r</em>=0.56, <em>p</em>&lt;0.01) groups. This study shows multiple anthelmintic resistance with promising resistant characteristics against PGE among sheep.</p> NOOR AL MAJIDAH ABD MAJID MUHAMMAD IQBAL ISHAK JAGATHIS WEE VANNIAR MURUGAPIRAN NOR AZLINA ABDUL AZIZ BASRIPUZI NURUL HAYYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 107 115 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2260 GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SUMATRAN ELEPHANTS IN SEBLAT NATURAL ECOTOURISM PARK BASED ON PARTIAL OF MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME B GENE <p class="p1">Sumatran elephant (<em>Elephas maximus sumatranus </em>Temminck, 1847) is one of the Asian elephant sub-species distributed in Sumatera Island and classified as endangered species due to hunting and high habitat fragmentation. This study aimed to analyze the genetic relationship of Sumatran elephants based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (<em>Cyt b</em>). Blood samples were collected from 11 elephants in Seblat Natural Ecotourism Park. Based on mt-DNA Cytochrome b gene analysis, low genetic diversity was found in the Sumatran elephant population, indicated by 99-100% sequence similarity among elephant samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all elephants were in the same clade and has a close relationship with Borneo elephants. Additionally, the Median-joining network illustrated only two haplotypes in the Sumatran elephant population. The low genetic diversity of the Sumatran elephant indicates that a strategic breeding program should be seriously taken into account to prevent the Sumatran elephant from extinction.</p> SIPRIYADI YANSEN ARDEA BUJANA ENI SURYANTI MUHAMMAD CAHYADI RICHI YULIAVIAN KUSMINANTO CHOIRUL MUSLIM TETI NAIBAHO MONICA ANGGRAINI Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 117 125 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2238 EFFECT OF SAGO BARK BIOCHAR APPLICATION ON Capsicum annuum L. var. Kulai GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD <p class="p1">Applying biochar in crop farming or agriculture activity generally increases productivity through improved soil fertility and water holding capacity.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>However, there is a lack of empirical data on the effects of sago bark waste-derived biochar on the growth media of <em>Capsicum annuum </em>L. This work, reported the effect of sago bark biochar and acid-base treated sago bark biochar on <em>Capsicum annuum </em>L<em>. </em>var. <em>Kulai</em> growth media fertility. The plant growth study was carried out using completely random design experimental layouts with five replicates and 8 treatments at various biochar application rates (0.5,1.5, &amp; 3.0%, w/w). Results showed that plant grown with 1.5% sago bark biochar has the highest number of the leaf (122.90). Plant with 1.5% acid-base treated sago bark biochar showed a significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) higher number of flower buds (1.90) and stem height (69.00 cm) during 4 months of the vegetative period. Meanwhile, plants with 3% acid-base treated sago bark biochar obtained the highest yield of fruit fresh weight (67.64 g). In general, acid-base treated sago bark biochar application increase the yield of <em>Capsicum annuum </em>L. var. <em>Kulai</em>.</p> NOR KHAIRUNNISA MOHAMAD FATHI MOHAMAD FHAIZAL MOHAMAD BUKHORI SHARIFAH MONA ABD AZIZ ABDULLAH RAFEAH WAHI MOHD ALHAFIIZH ZAILANI MELISA MALINI RAJA GOPAL Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 127 135 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2191 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT MINERAL INCLUSIONS IN ANCHOVY BYPRODUCT BASED FEEDS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RED CLAW CRAYFISH, Cherax quadricarinatus <p><span class="fontstyle0">The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different mineral inclusion in anchovy by-product (ABP) based feeds on the growth performance of red claw crayfish juveniles, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Cherax quadricarinatus</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">. A total of five experimental feeds with the inclusion of different mineral levels from 0-2.0% of the diet (M0, M0.5, M1.0, M1.5, &amp; M2.0%) were fed to triplicate groups of 12 juvenile red claw crayfish with an average initial body weight of 2.20±0.10 g. There was no significant difference in terms of final body weight (g), final length (cm), weight gain (%), length gain (%), specific growth rate (%/d), and survival rate (%) of the juvenile red claw crayfish at the end of the feeding trial. Feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.60 (M0.5) to 1.76 (M1.0). Similar to the growth performance, the molting frequency was not affected by the different mineral inclusions in the feeds. Mineral inclusion in the feeds based on ABP can be reduced up to 0%, at least in a short culture period, and higher possibility of including minerals less than 2% in the feeds for juvenile red claw crayfish in a long-term culture period. Considering the good growth and survival of juvenile red claw crayfish in all treatments, the use of ABP as a source of protein and mineral in feeds for juvenile red claw crayfish is highly recommended as this will reduce the feed cost due to the much lower price of ABP. It can be concluded that the anchovy by-product meal used in the present study is a high potential ingredient to supply dietary protein and minerals in the formulated feeds for juvenile red claw crayfish</span></p> MUHAMMAD KHAIRUL ASHRAF JAMIL ROSSITA SHAPAWI ANNITA SEOK KIAN YONG LEONG SENG LIM AUDREY DANING TUZAN NUR FATIHAH ABD HALID Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 137 145 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2380 ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN BONE HEALTH STATUS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CALCIUM INTAKE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MALAYSIAN OLDER ADULTS FROM BANGI AND KAJANG, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA <p class="p1">The increase in sedentary activity among older adults could result in lowering bone mineral density (BMD), thus increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Physical activity and adequate dietary calcium intake (DCI) are important to optimize bone health. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine ethnic differences in bone health status (BHS) and to investigate the association between lifestyle factors and BHS among Malaysian older adults. A total of 120 older adults aged between 60 to 84 years old of three major ethnicities residing in Bangi and Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia were recruited in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to fill out food frequency questionnaire and the international physical activity questionnaires for the quantification of DCI and physical activity level (PAL) assessments. BMD was quantified using QUS-2 Calcaneal Ultrasonometer. The results showed that the Chinese participants had significantly lower body mass index (BMI) (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) than their counterparts. Malay participants had significantly higher DCI (<em>p</em>=0.027) compared to other groups. However, none of the participants met the recommended daily intake of calcium (1000 mg/day). The Indian participants had significantly higher (<em>p</em>=0.007) PAL compared to the Malay and Chinese groups. BMD analysis showed that the Chinese have significantly lower (<em>p</em>=0.001) T-scores (-0.54 ± 1.35) compared to Malay (0.78 ± 1.72) and Indian (0.61 ± 1.91), respectively. BMI and DCI were positively correlated with BMD (correlation coefficient, <em>r</em>= 0.320, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001; <em>r</em>=0.383, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the reduced BMI among the Chinese and DCI among all Malaysian older adults need to be concerned and addressed immediately. Future intervention programs should be focusing on optimizing DCI, not only among the older adults but should be emphasized and initiated at younger ages to prevent osteoporosis during old age. <span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> HUI PENG LIM NUR SYAHIRA NASARUDDIN NORLIDA MAT DAUD NOR AINI JAMIL Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 147 157 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2410 Symbiodinium IN CORAL REEFS AND ITS ADAPTATION RESPONSES TOWARD CORAL BLEACHING EVENTS: A REVIEW <p class="p1"><em>Symbiodinium</em> is a category of symbiotic dinoflagellates commonly associated with various reef-building corals. Detrimental impacts of global climate change worsen the mutualistic association of coral-<em>Symbiodinium</em>, endangering the reefs to the bleaching and mass mortality phenomenon. Destruction of coral reef ecosystems has adverse effects not only on marine life but also on the human population. It has been proposed that to protect the coral reefs, an exclusive selection of thermal-tolerance traits in <em>Symbiodinium </em>will increase the survivability of coral reefs. However, there are still limited findings on the coral-endosymbiont resistance under adverse environments. Thus, this review aims to introduce shortly the coral reefs, <em>Symbiodinium</em>, and coral bleaching events, as well as to provide brief reviews of cellular and molecular responses in <em>Symbiodinium</em> to tackle thermal stress. Considering the potential applications of this knowledge to confront the threat of coral bleaching prevalence, more study especially in terms of cellular and molecular responses by omics approaches is needed to enhance the understanding of coral-<em>Symbiodinium</em> tolerance toward climate change, particularly heat stress.</p> NURUL SHAFIQA-YUSOF NUR SYAHIRAH MOHD RADZI Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 51 3 1 15 10.55230/mabjournal.v51i3.2162