Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Web of Science Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (Myjurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> Malaysian Society of Applied Biology en-US Malaysian Applied Biology 0126-8643 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF KAFFIR LIME LEAVES (Citrus hystrix) ON SELECTED FOODBORNE PATHOGENS BAZLEE ABU BAKAR CHE PUTEH OSMAN WAN RAZARINAH WAN ABDUL RAZAK Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 50 1 217 219 DIVERSITY OF RODENTS AND TREESHREWS IN DIFFERENT HABITATS IN WESTERN SARAWAK, BORNEO SIEU ZHIEN TEO YEE LING CHONG ANDREW ALEK TUEN Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 50 1 221 224 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE HANDLING PRACTICES AND A QUALITATIVE STUDY ON PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN MALAYSIA BOON TSANN LIM WHYE HONG LEONG SHU YI TEH ZABIDI ZABIDI-HUSSIN THIYAGAR NADARAJAW SATHIYA MARAN KOK SONG LAI CHUN WIE CHONG SWEE YEE CHIN SWEE HUA ERIN LIM Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 50 1 225 229 MALAYSIAN HERBS IN SKIN AGING AND HYPERPIGMENTATION <p><span class="fontstyle0">In the beauty and wellness industries, the association between herbs, skin aging, hyperpigmentation, and cosmeceuticals is gaining significance. The process of skin aging occurs in the epidermal and dermal layers and is primarily associated with the deterioration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Deterioration of ECM can be due to increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or decreased transforming growth factor-</span><span class="fontstyle2">β </span><span class="fontstyle0">(TGF-</span><span class="fontstyle2">β</span><span class="fontstyle0">). Along with some pigment defects such as hypo or hyperpigmentation, this process can cause skin wrinkles, roughness, and dryness. There is a need to slow down the ECM degradation and inhibition of melanin formation. Herbs have a high potential due to their various biologically active compounds. Malaysia is one of the countries rich in tropical rainforests with its traditional medicinal herbs. However, the use of Malaysian herbs in skin aging and hyperpigmentation is still limited. Thus, this review focuses on selected Malaysian herbs that are traditionally used for various purposes and have potential as anti-aging and anti-hyperpigmentation properties. The information contained in the present review indicates that selected Malaysian herbs can be used in the treatment of skin aging and hyperpigmentation and will assist the cosmetics sectors in the development of herbal anti-aging and antihyperpigmentation formulations.</span></p> TUAN NADRAH NAIM TUAN ISMAIL WAN NAZATUL SHIMA SHAHIDAN KANNAN THIRUMULU PONNURAJ Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Applied Biology 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 50 1 1 9 MICROBIAL-INDUCED CALCITE PRECIPITATION: A MILESTONE TOWARDS SOIL IMPROVEMENT <p><span class="fontstyle0">Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a natural process that offered various applications in the engineering field materials and construction industry. It has recently emerged as an innovative, eco-friendly, and economically engineered<br>process. One of the successful MICP methods of improving the engineering properties of soils is ureolysis. The ureolysis drove the process of precipitate calcite which binds soil particles within the soil matrix thus enhance soil characteristics<br>such as stiffness, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, shear strength, and compressive strength. This paper aimed at reviewing the concept of utilizing calcium carbonate (CaCO</span><span class="fontstyle0">3</span><span class="fontstyle0">) precipitation by ureolytic bacteria towards the improvement of soil and sand engineering properties for various geotechnical applications. The potential applications of this technology<br>in soil erosion, stability, and reinforcement were discussed. Detail overviews of the temperature, pH, bacteria cell concentration, nutrients, types of bacteria, and concentration of reactants that affect the efficiency of the process are also reviewed. This review demonstrated the potential of the MICP technology from the laboratory to a field-scale or commercial applications.</span> </p> ABDULAZIZ ALIYU DARDAU MUSKHAZLI MUSTAFA NOR AZWADY ABD AZIZ Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-05 2021-04-05 50 1 11 27 A MINI REVIEW ON THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITIONS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF Litsea garciae <p><em> <span class="fontstyle0">Litsea garciae </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">is an underutilized plant found in certain parts of South East Asia. The plant part has been traditionally used to treat, among others, skin infections, boil, rectal bleeding, muscular pain, and sprains. Besides its medicinal properties, its seasonal fruit is consumed for its avocado-like flavor. This article aims to provide information on what is known so far about the nutritional composition and pharmacological properties of </span><span class="fontstyle0">Litsea garciae</span><span class="fontstyle2">.</span></p> ZUNIKA AMIT LING ZINYIN Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 50 1 29 39 PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF FRESHWATER FISHES OF ULU PAIP ECO-PARK FOREST, KEDAH, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA <p><span class="fontstyle0">This report is the first on freshwater fishes of Ulu Paip Eco-Park Forest, Kedah, which aims to document the fish species richness in this recreational forest. All species were collected from the main stream, Sungai Karangan, and its unnamed tributaries. In total, 20 species of fishes from 10 families were recorded. Cyprinidae is the most dominant family with six species followed by Danionidae with three species. Other families contribute at least one species each. Most of the species recorded here are commonly found in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Further studies should be expected to record more species and the utilization of various sampling gear such as electro fishing technique would be able to record<br>the true species richness of fishes in this area.</span> </p> MOHAMAD AQMAL-NASER AMIRRUDIN B. AHMAD Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 50 1 41 54 MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT RICE VARIETIES SUBJECTED TO DROUGHT STRESS AT EARLY VEGETATIVE STAGE <p><span class="fontstyle0">Drought is a climate problem which has become a major constraint on crop production and causing social and economic devastation to local farmers worldwide. This climate issue has been the most destructive factors for rice cultivation and therefore requires scientist to be more responsive to this problem. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress at an early vegetative stage on plant growth, physiology and root anatomy of a few selected known tolerance rice varieties. Rice seeds were first germinated on moisturized filter papers before transplanted into polybags filled with topsoils. Drought treatment was imposed 4 weeks after transplanting until the first sign of rolled leaves were seen. In this study, drought had no major impact on plant height but reduced dry matter accumulation was seen in all varieties. Drought exposure had also triggered changes in the overall content of chlorophyll but not in the composition of chlorophyll </span><span class="fontstyle2">a </span><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><span class="fontstyle2">b</span><span class="fontstyle0">. Meanwhile, plants subject to drought in some parameters had better root morphology and structure compared to normal irrigation, especially in Kuku Belang, Apami and Huma Wangi Lenggong. However, depending on the variety, the responses varied in different order of magnitude.</span></p> MOHD FAUZIHAN KARIM NUR FARAH SUHADA MOHD ROSELY NUR AINI MOHD KAMIL CHE NURUL AINI CHE AMRI Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 50 1 55 64 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PROPOLIS FROM Trigona thoracica TOWARDS CARIOGENIC BACTERIA <p><span class="fontstyle0">Propolis is an important bee product which consists of resinous mixture produce by the honeybees from various plant sources. Propolis produced by stingless bee (</span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Trigona thoracica</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">), commonly known as ‘Kelulut’ in Malaysia, is also known to have medicinal values. The </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Trigona thoracica </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">bees are widely distributed throughout Malaysia. The properties of propolis from </span><span class="fontstyle2">Trigona thoracica </span><span class="fontstyle0">have been investigated </span><span class="fontstyle2">in vitro </span><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><span class="fontstyle2">in vivo</span><span class="fontstyle0">. It is renowned to have various biological activities as the antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antiinflammatory and anticancer. Currently, there is limited scientific studies that show antimicrobial activities of propolis against the oral pathogens. Thus, this study is carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) from </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Trigona thoracica </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">against cariogenic bacteria (</span><em><span class="fontstyle2">S. mutans </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">&amp; </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">S. sobrinus</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">). This study is performed using the agar well diffusion assay to screen the antimicrobial activity of EEP from </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Trigona thoracica </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">expressed as mean of inhibition diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EEP will be determined by the broth microdilution method. The mean of inhibition diameter and MIC between EEP and standard antibiotic (metronidazole) against </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">S. mutans </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">S. sobrinus </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">is not statistically different. In conclusion, EEP from </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Trigona thoracica </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">has antimicrobial properties against cariogenic bacteria.</span></p> TUAN NADRAH NAIM TUAN ISMAIL NICHOLAS SIM CHOO WEE NOORAZLIYANA SHAFII NURKARYATEE KASSIM WAN NAZATUL SHIMA SHAHIDAN HANIM AFZAN IBRAHIM Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 50 1 65 71 IMPACT OF SINGLE AND TWO-PHASE DISSOLVED OXYGEN TENSION CONTROL ON Bacillus thuringiensis CULTIVATION AND δ-ENDOTOXIN PRODUCTION <p><span class="fontstyle0">Constant </span><span class="fontstyle2">δ</span><span class="fontstyle0">-endotoxin production is crucial in </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">Bacillus thuringiensis </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">cultivation with aeration strategy playing a significant role in the process. In this study, the impact of DOT control strategies on the cultivation performance of </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">B. thuringiensis </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">was investigated using a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor. Single-phase DOT control recorded low spore count (&lt;5.0 × 10</span><span class="fontstyle0">11 </span><span class="fontstyle0">spore/mL) and low percentage of sporulation (&lt;45%). Two-stage DOT control cultivation with DOT at 80% during the active growth phase, followed by a switch to 60% or 40% at mid-exponential growth phase contributed to enhanced sporulation (&gt;60%), high maximum cell count (1.5 cfu/mL) with </span><span class="fontstyle2">δ</span><span class="fontstyle0">-endotoxin formed as early as 8 hr of cultivation. A high maximum specific growth rate, μ</span><span class="fontstyle0">max </span><span class="fontstyle0">(&gt;0.1 h</span><span class="fontstyle0">-1</span><span class="fontstyle0">) was also essential in ensuring </span><span class="fontstyle2">δ</span><span class="fontstyle0">-endotoxin production. High cell count obtained in cultivation with DOT level of 80% saturation during active growth was concurrent with high cell count, high μ</span><span class="fontstyle0">max</span><span class="fontstyle0">, fast generation time, high OUR, high CER value, and high respiratory quotient (RQ) value. During the two-phase DOT control cultivation, low RQ values were reported. The result showed that the exhaust gas data could be used to monitor </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">B. thuringiensis </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">cultivation performance.</span> </p> MOHAMED MAZMIRA MOHD MASRI MOHD SHAWAL THAKIB MAIDIN ARBAKARIYA BIN ARIFF Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 50 1 73 84 SOLID SUBSTRATE FERMENTATION OF SAGO WASTE AND ITS EVALUATION AS FEED INGREDIENT FOR RED HYBRID TILAPIA <p><span class="fontstyle0">The increasing demand for fishmeal in aquaculture industry causes the rising cost of feed yearly. Here, we reported on the solid-state fermentation of sago waste inoculated with mixed microbial cultures, optimization of its fermentation parameters to improve the nutrient contents, and the use of the fermented sago waste as an ingredient in the formulation of fish feed diet. The use of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Aspergillus niger</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Neurospora crassa </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">as inoculums gave the best, improved physiochemical properties and nutrient content of the fermented sago waste. The optimum conditions were 5 days, 28°C, pH 3, and sodium nitrate as a nitrogen source. Under the optimized conditions, moisture content, crude protein, and ash increases by 11.8%, 1.3%, and 5.1%; whereas dry matter and crude fiber decreases by 11.8% and 6.1%; respectively. The fermented sago waste prepared was further used as ingredient in the formulation of the fish feed diet and fed to red hybrid tilapia. Fish feed that contained up to 150 g kg</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">-1 </span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">of fermented sago waste had a similar growth rate. Growth performance, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate of tilapia fed were not of significant difference compared to control diet. The supplementation of the diets for 60 days resulted in 1.50 ± 0.48 g fish</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">-1 </span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">mean body weight gain with a specific growth rate of 0.68 ± 0.17% day</span><sup><span class="fontstyle0">-1</span></sup><span class="fontstyle0">, feed conversion ratio of 2.33 ± 0.84, and survival rate of 80%. This concludes that fermented sago waste has the potential as a partial substitute for fishmeal.</span> </p> NURAFIDAH LANI AHMAD HUSAINI NGUI SING NGIENG KUI SOON LEE KHAIRUL ADHA A. RAHIM HAIRUL AZMAN ROSLAN YUZINE ESA Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-05 2021-04-05 50 1 85 94 TOLERANCE LEVEL OF GRAFTED PAPAYA PLANTS AGAINST PAPAYA DIEBACK DISEASE <p><span class="fontstyle0">Papaya (</span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Carica papaya</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">) cultivars commonly grown in Malaysia, namely Sekaki and Eksotika, are very susceptible to papaya dieback disease (PDD), resulting in reduced production of papayas. As an alternative, grafted papaya seedling using Viorica variety as a highly tolerant rootstock can be introduced to combat PDD. Three grafting combinations of scion/rootstock were used in this study namely Eksotika/Eksotika (E/E), Eksotika/Viorica (E/V) and Viorica/Viorica (V/V). These grafted plants were tested over hot-spot diseased location to evaluate their field tolerance levels against PDD for 14 months of exposure. The occurrence of PDD on grafted papaya plants showed that the disease was mostly found in the E/E combination, with disease severity of 86.7% and a disease score of 4.34, whereas the disease severity and disease score of E/V grafting was 71.0% and 3.55, respectively. The lowest disease occurrence was recorded on V/V plants, with a disease severity of 34.3% and a disease score of 1.72. Results showed that E/E and E/V were highly susceptible, while V/V was tolerant against PDD. Therefore, papaya var. Viorica rootstock proved that it could influence the tolerance level of papaya cv. Eksotika scion against PDD.</span> </p> HASSAN MOHD-AZHAR JOHARI SARIP NOOR FAIMAH GHAZALI MUHAMMAD ZULFA MOHD RAZIKIN ABDUL RAZAK MARIATULQABTIAH Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-05 2021-04-05 50 1 95 103 HAEMATOLOGY PROFILE OF FRUIT BATS Cynopterus spp. FROM SPECIAL REGION YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA <p><em> <span class="fontstyle0">Cynopterus </span></em><span class="fontstyle2"><em>spp</em>. is a fruit bats genus that is widely distributed in Asia and plays an important role as pollinator and seed disperser of plants in different habitats. Haematological data is affected by sex, age, and external factors. It is also needed in examination of the health conditions, body defenses, and physiological conditions of bats. Complete haematological data of this genus in Indonesia remain a lack of information. This study aimed to analyze the haematological profile of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">Cynopterus </span></em><span class="fontstyle2"><em>spp</em>. Bats were captured using mist nets at three different habitat types in the special region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Total 31 individuals from four species </span><span class="fontstyle0">Cynopterus </span><span class="fontstyle2">spp. were trapped. Blood samples were collected from the intracardiac. 20 parameters including the density of erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet profiles were analyzed. The result indicated red cell distribution width standard deviation counts between juvenile and adult, leukocyte number and platelet number between urban and non-urban of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">C</span><span class="fontstyle2">. </span><span class="fontstyle0">brachyotis </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">were significantly different. Those results are presumed to be associated with age stage and environmental conditions. A large number of fruit bats individuals from different habitat is necessary for further study.</span> </p> HUSNI MUBAROK NIKEN SATUTI NUR HANDAYANI TUTY ARISURYANTI IBNU MARYANTO Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 50 1 105 113 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE DAILY ACTIVITY BUDGET OF SUN BEAR (Helarctus malayanus) IN CAPTIVITY AND SEMI-CAPTIVITY <p>A comparative study on the daily activity budget of the sun bear was conducted in Lok Kawi Wildlife Park and Borneon Sun Bear Conservation Centre (BSBCC) Malaysia. The behaviour of 22 individuals was recorded using the Instantaneous scan sampling method. A total of 330 hr were collected, with 180 hr were collected at Lok Kawi Wildlife Park and 150 hr at BSBCC. Thirteen behavioural activities were recorded using the Ad-libitum sampling method in both captive and semi- captive bears, which were then grouped into three categories; active, passive, and abnormal behaviours classes and tabulated in an ethogram. Captive sun bears are kept permanently under human control, such as in zoos, while semi-captive sun bears are released to the forest during the day but kept in the cage at night. This study shows that semi-captive bears are significantly more active than captive bears. More passive and abnormal behaviours are present in captive bears. Stereotypic pacing scored the highest percentage of observation with 24% for abnormal behaviour in captive bears. Both captive and semi-captive bears showed a similar pattern of active and passive behavioural rhythms. The peak for active behaviours was from 1000 to 1100 hr, and the peak for passive behaviours was from 1300 to 1400 hr. In conclusion, although there was a difference in activities done between captive and semi-captive bears, the pattern of behavioural rhythms between both group of bears was similar. The introduction of enrichment programmes is crucial to captive bears to reduce stereotypic pacing behaviour.</p> SITI SARAYATI ABDUL MAWAH LO CHOR-WAI FARNIDAH JASNIE Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 50 1 115 124 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ASEPTIC CULTURES AND MULTIPLE SHOOT INDUCTION OF OLIVE (Olea europaea) cv.1 <p><em>Olea europaea</em> or the olive plant is from the family of Oleaceae and has been cultivated for its fruits that are highly nutritious, capable of reducing risks of cardiovascular diseases and to prevent cancer. The current propagation technique of olive plants in Malaysia relies on conventional methods that are less efficient in producing good quality plant stocks. Plant tissue culture offers an alternative to multiply plants from novel mother plants and is commonly applied in the propagation of various crops. This study aims to establish sterile cultures and to induce multiple shoots from <em>Olea europaea</em> cv.1 as a preliminary study to micropropagate olive plants for commercial farms in Malaysia. Nodal explants were surfaced sterilised with ethanol and Clorox© at different durations followed by treatments in MS media supplemented with different concentrations of Zeatin and BAP. Nodal explants surface sterilised with 70% (v/v) ethanol for 2 min and 30% (v/v) Clorox© for 8 min produced sterile explants with the survival rate of 85%. MS media supplemented 5.0 mg/L BAP was optimal for shoot induction (2.10 ± 0.31 shoots per explant) and shoot elongation (6.50 ± 1.17 mm). The current study serves as preliminary assessment for the establishment of local olive cultures.</p> RU SHEN WONG HONG XUAI CHAI SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM BEE LYNN CHEW Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 50 1 125 132 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND MATING STUDY OF Fusarium proliferatum FROM VARIOUS HOSTS IN MALAYSIA <p><em><span class="fontstyle0">Fusarium proliferatum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">is a well-known plant pathogenic fungus-infected many crops. The present study was carried out to molecularly identified and characterized morphologically identified </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">F. proliferatum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">from various hosts and substrates. The species identity of the isolates was verified as </span><span class="fontstyle0">F. proliferatum </span><span class="fontstyle2">based on TEF-1</span><span class="fontstyle3">α </span><span class="fontstyle2">sequences and phylogenetic analysis indicated high intraspecific variations. RFLP-IGS analysis also indicated high intraspecific variations of which the isolates were clustered into three RFLP Groups (I, II, and III) comprising 67 IGS haplotypes. Seventy isolates were crossed-fertile and proven to be members of mating population D (MP-D) of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">Gibberella fujikuroi </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">while four isolates were infertile. A high level of intraspecific variations is vital for </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">F. proliferatum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">adaptation and survival in the host and environment</span><span class="fontstyle0">. </span><span class="fontstyle2">Correct species identification of </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">F. proliferatum </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">is important as the fungus is a well-known plant pathogen and mycotoxin producer. Correct species identity is also essential to strategize suitable disease control methods as well as to predict their host range and mycotoxin production.</span></p> NURUL FARIZAH AZUDDIN MASRATUL HAWA MOHD NIK MOHD IZHAM MOHAMED NOR LATIFFAH ZAKARIA Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 50 1 133 144 EFFECTIVENESS OF INSECTICIDES ROTATION WITH DIFFERENT MODES OF ACTION AGAINST OIL PALM BUNCH MOTH Tirathaba mundella (WALKER) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) <p><em><span class="fontstyle0">Tirathaba mundella </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">Walker has emerged as one of the most prominent bunch feeding pests in Sarawak peat oil palm estates. Insecticides application is inevitable to prevent economic loss. However, to protect insect pollinators which cohabitat with the pest and reduce the risk of resistance development among the pest to insecticides, rotation treatments with more than one pollinator-friendly insecticides is recommended. This paper examines the effectiveness of rotating several pollinator-friendly insecticides in controlling the pest. To assess the effectiveness of different rotation combination, a field study on a seven-year-old peat estate was carried out using several insecticides combinations and application intervals, then the level of infestation post-treatment was assessed. Significantly, the results showed that only four single rounds of insecticides application in a year would yield relatively better control than nine rounds of </span><span class="fontstyle0"><em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> </span><span class="fontstyle2">applications. Overall, there was no significant difference in clean bunches percentages obtained between five rounds of treatment compared to only four rounds per year. The result strengthens our confidence that the optimum and most cost-effective approach for one-year protection against </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">T. mundella </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">was two rounds of 30.0 g active ingredient of chlorantraniliprole per ha rotated with two rounds of 25.0 g active ingredient of chromafenozide. The material cost was calculated as RM 351.20 per ha per year. The findings of this study would benefit future pest management practice in oil palm plantation established on peatland</span></p> SU CHONG MING PATRICIA KING JIE HUNG KWAN YEE MIN ZAKRY FITRI AB AZIZ ONG KIAN HUAT Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-30 2021-05-30 50 1 145 156 SCREENING OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN HERBS AS THE POTENTIAL BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT AGAINST BACTERIAL DISEASES OF FISH <p><span class="fontstyle0">The control of fish disease is mostly based on synthetic antimicrobial agents. Indiscriminate usage of antimicrobial agents has resulted in antibiotics resistance. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the potential antimicrobial properties of herbal plants as an alternative antimicrobial agent. The susceptibility of fish pathogens namely </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Bacillus </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">sp., </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Enterococcus</em> <em>faecalis</em></span><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Staphylococcus aureus</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Streptococcus agalactiae</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Aeromonas hydrophila</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Escherichia coli</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Klebsiella pneumoniae</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Pseudomonas aeruginosa </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Vibrio alginolyticus </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">towards aqueous and methanolic extracts of </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Cosmos</em> <em>caudatus</em></span><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Curcuma mangga</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Justicia gendarussa</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Piper betle </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Zingiber zerumbet </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">were assessed using the agar well diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. The methanolic extracts were found active against all tested bacteria, compared to aqueous extracts. The best antibacterial activity was demonstrated by methanolic extract of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">P. betle</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, followed by </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Z</span><span class="fontstyle0">. </span><span class="fontstyle2">zerumbet</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">C</span><span class="fontstyle0">. </span><span class="fontstyle2">caudatus</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">C</span><span class="fontstyle0">. </span><span class="fontstyle2">mangga </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">J</span><span class="fontstyle0">. </span><span class="fontstyle2">gendarussa</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, with the lowest MIC and MBC values of 0.39 and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. The methanolic extracts of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">P. betle </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Z. zerumbet</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">also had greater inhibitory effects than some of the commercial antibiotics, particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. Overall findings suggested that the methanolic extracts of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">P. betle </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Z. zerumbet </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">are potential to be developed as new antimicrobial agents to prevent fish bacterial diseases.</span></p> SYAHIDAH AHMAD HASSAN MOHD DAUD YAYA RUKAYADI YASSER MOHAMED ABDELHADI NOR ASMA HUSNA YUSOFF MOHD SALLEH KAMARUDIN Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 50 1 157 168 SUBSTITUTION OF FAT WITH VARIOUS TYPES OF SQUASHES AND GOURDS FROM THE Cucurbitaceae FAMILY IN THE PRODUCTION OF LOW-FAT BUFFALO MEAT PATTIES <p><span class="fontstyle0">This study aimed to produce buffalo patties formulated with different types of squashes and gourds as fat substitutes. Kabocha squash, butternut squash, chayote squash, snake gourd and bottle gourd from the Cucurbitaceae family were used as the fat substitutes and buffalo meat patties with animal fat were the control. All patties were analysed and statistically compared in terms of physical properties and sensory acceptance. Generally, the moisture content, water holding capacity, cooking yield significantly increased for all samples compared to the control. The fat content reduced significantly below 3% for all fat-substituted patties, thus they can be regarded as low-fat. All fat-substituted samples were lighter in colour, with a harder texture than the control but the sensory analysis showed that the colour, texture, juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability of the fat-substituted patties were no different from the control. In conclusion, all the squashes and gourds tested were suitable as fat substitutes to produce low-fat buffalo patties, with chayote squash having the highest potential.</span> </p> SITI NURJAWAHER SHAMSOL KAHAR MOHAMMAD RASHEDI ISMAIL-FITRY MASNI MAT YUSOFF ASHARI ROZZAMRI JAMILAH BAKAR WAN ZUNAIRAH WAN IBADULLAH Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 50 1 169 179 POLYPHENOLIC PROFILE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF FREEZE-DRIED MELON MANIS TERENGGANU PEEL EXTRACTS <p><span class="fontstyle0">Melon Manis Terengganu (MMT) also known as </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Cucumis melo </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">var. Inodorus cv. Manis Terengganu 1 originates from Terengganu, Malaysia, is composed of 28–30% inedible peels and discarded as waste. Hence, this study aimed to quantify the polyphenol and flavonoid contents, identify polyphenolic compounds and evaluate the antioxidant activity of freezedried Melon Manis Terengganu (MMT) peel aqueous extract. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined<br>spectrophotometrically by gallic acid and quercetin standard curves, respectively. Whereas, antioxidant activity was explored by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis (3 ethylben-zothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay. Next, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied for phenolic compounds identification. Results reported that the total phenolic content was 12.35 (0.59) μg GAE/mg while total flavonoid content was 2.01 (0.70) μg QE/mg. The IC</span><span class="fontstyle0">50 </span><span class="fontstyle0">of DPPH and ABTS assay were 27.74 (1.59) mg/mL and 4.87 (0.06) mg/mL, respectively. LC-MS results revealed the presence of polyphenolic compounds, such as kaempferol 3-(6'’-sinapylglucosyl)-(1-&gt;2)-galactoside), isoorientin 7-O-(6'”-O-(E)-feruloyl)glucoside and isoscoparin 2'’-(6-(E)-ferulylglucoside) in the sample extract. In summary, these findings served as preliminary data for further exploration on the potential application of freezedried MMT peel aqueous extract in the food and nutraceutical industry.</span></p> YING QIAN ONG SAKINAH HARITH MOHD RAZIF SHAHRIL NORSHAZILA SHAHIDAN HERMIZI HAPIDIN Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 50 1 181 188 LEAF EPIDERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDICINAL Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Vernonia amygdalina Delile (ASTERACEAE) AND Clitoria ternatea L. (FABACEAE) <p><span class="fontstyle0">A study on leaf anatomical characteristics was undertaken on three medicinal plants species, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Eclipta prostrata </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">(L.) L.</span><span class="fontstyle2">, <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em></span><span class="fontstyle0">Delile and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Clitoria ternatea </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">L. It is found that there are variables in leaf epidermal features such as anticlinal wall patterns, stomata types, trichome types, and the occurrence of secretory structures. Results showed that there is slight variation in anticlinal wall patterns, which is, sinuous on abaxial surfaces and straight to wavy on adaxial surfaces of </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Eclipta prostrata</em>, </span><span class="fontstyle0">straight to wavy on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces of </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>, </span><span class="fontstyle0">and sinuous on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Clitoria ternatea</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, two types of stomata, which is anomocytic in </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Eclipta prostrata </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Vernonia amygdalina</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, and paracytic in </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Clitoria ternatea</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, six types of trichomes recorded such as simple multicellular (short stalk – blunted tip), simple multicellular (echinate ornamentation, pointed tip), simple unicellular (echinate ornamentation, pointed tip), irregular T-shaped glandular (short to long stalk – elongated terminal), capitate glandular (short stalk – unicellular terminal) and peltate glandular. Secretory cells were observed in two species, </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Eclipta prostrata</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>. </span><span class="fontstyle0">The leaf of these three medicinal species has been widely used in herbal preparation, however, there are not enough information nor a comprehensive study was done on the leaf anatomy of these species. Therefore, this study aimed to provide additional knowledge and more detailed information of the epidermal characteristics of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Eclipta</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Vernonia</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Clitoria</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">and contributes to systematic data available.</span> </p> NURSHAHIDAH MOHD RUSLI MOHD NORFAIZAL GHAZALLI NORAINI TALIP SAMSIAH JUSOH RAZALI MIRAD ROSNANI ABD GHANI WAN KHAIRUL ANUAR WAN ALI MOHD RANI AWANG NOR ISMAWATY NORDIN AHAMD ARIF ISMAIL Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 1 189 196 EFFECTS OF LIGHT ILLUMINATION AND SUBCULTURE FREQUENCY ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF Clinacanthus nutans <p><em>Clinacanthus nutans </em>(Burm. f.) Lindau is a medicinal plant rich in polyphenols and possesses multiple pharmacological properties. It is widely used as a side treatment for cancer and to prevent oxidative stress-related diseases. The present study aims to investigate the effects of light illumination and subculture frequency on the growth and proliferation of cells in the suspension culture of <em>C. nutans</em>. Friable callus induced from leaf explants <em>C. nutans </em>were cultured in liquid Murashige &amp; Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 0.25 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine to initiate the cell suspension culture. The suspension cultures were incubated under different conditions (16 hr photoperiod and continuous darkness). Subcultures were conducted every two weeks for ten subculture cycles. Results revealed that higher cell biomass was obtained under the exposure of 16 hr photoperiod with the highest biomass production at the fifth subculture cycle (growth index of 11.8) exhibiting stable growth from the eighth to the tenth subculture cycle. The suspension cells showed stable growth rates up to the 10th subculture cycle producing small aggregates and single cells. The present study indicated that light illumination significantly impacts the growth of suspension cultures for <em>C. nutans </em>in the production of valuable secondary metabolites.</p> FUI JOO BONG SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM BEE LYNN CHEW Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 1 197 204 BREAKFAST CONSUMPTION PATTERNS, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PRACTICE AND BARRIERS AMONG MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS <p>Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. However, university students tend to skip breakfast due to their hectic lifestyles. Therefore, the patterns, knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP), and barriers of breakfast consumption were investigated in this study via questionnaires among 396 students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that only 35.9% of students had breakfast between 6 to 7 days per week. Chinese students had a significantly higher (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) breakfast consumption compared with other groups. These results were consistent with the KAP scores in which Chinese students had the highest scores compared to their counterparts. However, the overall KAP scores were still at moderate levels with significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) positive correlations were found between knowledge and attitude (<em>r</em>=0.421), knowledge and practice (<em>r</em>=0.166), and attitude and practice (<em>r</em>=0.443). Malay students acknowledged the high cost of breakfast as a significant (<em>p</em>=0.03) barrier for breakfast consumption compared to other groups. No significant difference (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) was shown in other parameters. In conclusion, the frequency of breakfast consumption among the students was still low. The focus should be emphasized on practical strategies to address the barrier and encourage behavioral change for the students.</p> SIVAGAMI JAYAVELOO NORLIDA MAT DAUD HAFEEDZA ABD RAHMAN Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 1 205 216