Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Clarivate Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (MyJurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in <strong>Scopus</strong> since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> en-US <p>Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (<a href=""></a>). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission</p> (Dr. Mohd Ikmal Asmuni) (Ms. Siti Nurfaeiza Abd Razak) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 10:55:06 +0000 OJS 60 Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Meatless Nuggets of Boiled Chickpea and in Combination with Oyster Mushroom <p class="p1">This study aimed to develop meatless nuggets (MN) using different substitutions of chickpea and oyster mushrooms as key ingredients. Four different meatless nuggets which were control (100:0), MN70 (70:30), MN40 (40:60), and MN10 (10:90) with different ratios of boiled chickpea to mushroom were formulated in this study. A significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) higher carbohydrate, protein, fat, and crude fiber contents were observed with the increasing chickpea substitution. Nuggets prepared with chickpea and mushroom proteins met the standard of protein source for the nutrient reference value as well as the source of good fiber. However, results found that a significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) lower cooking yield and higher cooking loss were recorded in the sample substituted with the maximum ratio of mushroom (MN10). Likewise, textural properties such as hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness increase (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) with mushroom substitution. Substitution with higher chickpea tends to increase lightness (<em>L*</em>) and yellowness (<em>b*</em>) of control. The panelists for the sensory evaluation presented that MN40 containing an almost equal substitution of chickpea to mushroom had a better sensory mean score. However, substitution by these ingredients was the averagely scored by the panelists. Hence, nuggets with a 40:60 ratio of chickpea to mushroom were considered the ideal formulation for manufacturing meatless nuggets.</p> Pravinraj Moorthi , Che Abdullah Abu Bakar, Mohammad Rashedi Ismail-Fitry , Ishamri Ismail Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sweet Taste Preference Status and its Association with Preference for the Four Basic Taste Modalities of Various Food <p class="p1">Sweetness preference is a complex sensation involving multidisciplinary fields and it has been studied extensively. However, there is still limited information on how the status of the sweet preference of individuals influences their preference for other taste modalities. Thus, this study was conducted to observe the difference in the preference for various types of foods based on the four taste modalities, with sweet taste preference (STP) status. This cross-sectional study involved 156 university students in Kelantan, Malaysia. The preference test of tea drink sweetness was determined using the hedonic test. Subjects were grouped into low, medium, and high STP according to their STP level. The preference for the taste modalities of different food groups was determined by using a questionnaire. The results indicated that the majority of subjects were in the medium STP group. Foods categorized under the sweet taste group were mostly correlated with the STP status, followed by salty and sour foods. There was no correlation (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) between STP status and bitter foods. This result agrees with the principal component analysis (PCA). Two factors were extracted from PCA, in which the first factor explained 56.41% and the second factor explained 20.45% of the variance. Sweetness is related to foods that are categorized under salty and sour tastes, but not related to bitter tastes. This study shows that sweetness preference status is associated with preference for two other basic tastes. The high STP subject not only prefers sweet foods but also favors foods from salty and sour groups.</p> Marina Abdul Manaf, Nurul Nurain Mohamad Zazali, Siti Anis Izyani Abdul Wahid Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Morpho-molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Relationship of Tapinoma indicum Forel from Metropolitan Area <p><em>Tapinoma indicum</em> Forel is one of the most abundant nuisance pests found in Penang Island, Malaysia. However, limited research has been done on <em>T</em>. <em>indicum</em>, especially in the molecular genetic field. This paper aims to collect <em>T</em>. <em>indicum</em> from three districts in Penang Island, Malaysia including George Town, Gelugor, Balik Pulau, characterize <em>T</em>. <em>indicum</em> based on morphological measurements and molecular characterization of <em>T</em>. <em>indicum</em> using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 (CO1) sequences and 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) sequences. The morphological measurements resulting in HL = 4.31 ± 0.12 mm, HW = 3.87 ± 0.06 mm, EL = 0.89 ± 0.05 mm, EW = 0.58 ± 0.01 mm, SL = 3.56 ± 0.08 mm, ML= 1.11 ± 0.12 mm, CI = 89.83 ± 1.17, EI = 20.59 ± 0.88 and SI = 82.95 ± 2.34. The CO1 sequences and 16S rDNA sequences of <em>T</em>.<em> indicum</em> from each population are deposited and accessible via Genbank (NCBI) database. The phylogenetic trees result in two clades with three haplotypes, but the genetic structure is not well revealed.</p> Li Yang Lim, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake and Lifestyle Characteristics in Relation to Functional Constipation Among Adults in Malaysia <p>The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommend consuming at least 25 g of dietary fibre daily. Adults with low fibre intake have an increased constipation risk. However, little research has been done on the habitual dietary fibre intake and lifestyle characteristics of functional constipation in Malaysian adults. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the dietary fibre intake, lifestyle characteristics, and functional constipation of adults in Malaysia, as well as the association between habitual dietary fibre intake, lifestyle characteristics, and functional constipation. About 318 adults between the ages of 18 and 59 participated and were asked to complete an online questionnaire consisting of three major parts. The components are as follows: i) the assessment of dietary fibre intake by using a semi-quantitative dietary fibre food frequency questionnaire; ii) the assessment of lifestyle factors; and iii) the determination of functional constipation via the Wexner Constipation Scoring System. SPSS 25 was used to analyse the data at a significance level of 0.05. The results indicated that the majority of adults consumed dietary fibre in amounts less than 25 g per day (84.6%). About 97.5% of adults have a healthy lifestyle, and only 2.8% of adults in this study faced constipation. There was no significant association between habitual dietary fibre intake and lifestyle characteristics (<em>p</em>=0.614) or between habitual dietary fibre intake and functional constipation among adults in Malaysia (<em>p</em>=0.147). Continued efforts are needed to increase dietary fibre intake among the adult population.</p> Siti Fatin Khadijah Mamat Ibrahim, Asma’ Ali, Khairil Shazmin Kamarudin, Nor Hayati Ibrahim, Azlin Shafrina Hasim Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and Development of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens (L.), Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae Grown on Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fruit-Based Waste Substrates <p>There has been a surge in interest in using food waste (FW) as an insect-rearing substrate in recent years. We examine the effect of protein-based food waste (leftover boneless chicken, LBC), carbohydrate-based food waste (overnight rice, OR), and fruit-based food waste (rotten banana, RB) on the following parameters: substrate reduction (SR), waste reduction index (WRI), bioconversion rate (BCR) and relative growth rate (RGR). BSFL reared on OR feed substrate had the highest biomass (0.23±0.01) g at d9 followed by RB (0.22±0.00) g and LBC (0.16±0.00) g. Larvae from OR-fed BSFL were the longest, averaging 20.53±0.46 mm in length on d<sub>12</sub>. The SR calculated for all feed substrates were as followed: RB (95.35 ± 0.33)% &gt; OR (85.29 ± 0.80)% &gt; LBC (83.17 ± 0.27)%. The WRI for control (C) and BSFL-fed on all feeds were in the following manner: (RB<sub>C</sub>:8.90±0.00 g days-1, RB<sub>BSFL</sub>:9.53±0.00 g days-1) &gt; (OR<sub>C</sub>:7.35±0.00 g days-1, OR<sub>BSFL</sub>:8.53±0.09 g days-1) &gt; (LBC<sub>C</sub>:6.90±0.00 g days-1, LBC<sub>BSFL</sub>: 8.32±0.03 g days-1). OR-fed BSFL showed the highest BCR (76.0±1.0) % and RGR (0.32±0.01) days-1. The FW’s self-composting (as in control) influenced the BSFL’s SR and WRI in all diets. Overall, the BSFL’s growth and development are affected by the nature, quality, and type of diet of the feed substrates.</p> Fairuz Liyana Mohd Rasdi, Ahmad Razali Ishak, Pui Wee Hua, Siti Norashikin Mohd Shaifuddin, Nazri Che Dom, Farah Ayuni Shafie, Abdul Mujid Abdullah, Zulhisyam Abdul Kari, Edinur Hisham Atan Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Demographic Determinants of Fast-Food Consumption in Malaysian Young Adults <p>Fast-food is the fastest-growing food category in the world, offering young adults a quick, affordable, and readily available alternative to home-cooked meals. The objective of this study was to determine the socio-demographic determinants of the most frequent fast-food consumption among young adults in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study involved 405 Malaysian young adults aged 18 to 29 who participated in an online survey. This self-administered online questionnaire of habitual fast-food consumption was evaluated using a modified Fast-food Frequency Questionnaire comprised of 30 food items, while the socio-demographic profile was determined by age, gender, ethnicity, monthly household income, marital status, residence, and educational level. IBM SPSS Statistics version 25 (SPSS IBM, New York, USA) was used to analyse the data. The results indicated that the most frequently consumed fast-foods were fried chicken (77.6% of habitual consumption), ice cream (41.3%), and burgers (40%). A chi-square independence test revealed a statistically significant association between urban and rural residence and high fast-food consumption (i.e., fried chicken): <em>X</em><sup>2</sup>(2, N = 405) = 22.924, p = 0.001. However, there is no association between consumption of fast-food and gender (<em>X</em><sup>2</sup>(2, N = 405) = 0.044, <em>p</em> = 0.834), fast-food and age (<em>p</em> = 0.403), or fast-food and educational level (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). Taken together, these findings have provided more information on the habitual consumption of fast-food by young adults. The Malaysian government and other health authorities may be able to develop an action plan to reduce obesity rates and other diseases associated with fast-food consumption among young adults.</p> Nurhanim Mohd Hatta, Asma' Ali, Aziz Yusof, Wan Hafiz Wan Zainal Shukri, Khairil Shazmin Kamarudin Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Performances of Hybrid Grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus Fed with Defatted Soybean Meal-Based Feeds with Supplementation of Phytase <p>Fish meal is the primary protein ingredient in fish feed and this material is expensive and non-renewable. However, the use of plant protein in marine fish feed such as soybean meal products are limited due to anti-nutritional factor that hindered fish performances. Therefore, hybrid grouper, a cross between tiger grouper (<em>Epinephelus fuscoguttatus</em>) and giant grouper (<em>E</em>. <em>lanceolatus</em>) was evaluated using defatted soybean meal (DSM) based feed and phytase. DSM- based feeds (30% of protein replacement) with supplementation of phytase at 0 and 2000 FTU/kg dosages, as well as a control feed (CON) comprised completely of fish meal (FM) was given to the hybrid grouper with an initial body weight of 6.2±0.0g. Each experimental feed was formulated with 50% of crude protein and 12% of crude lipid. The fish were raised in 100L fiberglass tanks equipped with a flow-through water system for each triplicate treatment. The hybrid grouper was fed with the respective feeds twice a day until the perceived satiation level for 12 weeks. Hybrid grouper fed CON and DSM-based feed did not exhibit any significant difference in growth. However, hybrid grouper fed with DSM-based feed grew larger compared to that fed with CON. Hybrid grouper fed with DSM-based feed showed significantly higher feed intake, lower net protein utilization, hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) protein values (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). The value of ADC of phosphorus was slightly higher in DSM-based feed supplemented with phytase at a dosage of 2000 FTU/kg. No significant effect was observed on body proximate composition, morphological condition of the intestine, and ADC of lipids in all the treatments. The results show that hybrid grouper can effectively consume 30% DSM-based feed and supplementing phytase did not affect the fish performances.</p> Norfazreena Mohd Faudzi, Rossita Shapawi, Shigeharu Senoo, Amal Biswas, Annita Seok Kian Yong Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Physical and Chemical Properties of Pineapple Fruit of cv. Pada and cv. Sarawak in Response to Flowering Hormones <p>Pineapple flowering can be stimulated through artificially induced flowering (AIF) to ensure year-round production. The post effect gains from AIF is currently not universally acknowledged by previous studies, therefore, this study aims to evaluate the physical and chemical fruit properties in response to different AIF practices on cv. Pada, and cv. Sarawak. The AIF was applied to 9-month-old plants with nine treatments being tested, consisting of calcium carbide (CaC<sub>2</sub>), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and ethephon at various concentrations. The fruit samples were collected at a maturity index of 5 in order to determine its physical (total fruit weight, fruit weight without crown, total fruit length, fruit length without crown, fruit diameter, peduncle length and peduncle diameter) and chemical properties (pH, total soluble solid and titratable acidity). The results showed that the total fruit weight as well as fruit weight without crown on cv. Pada and total fruit weight on cv. Sarawak were not affected by AIF treatments. The study showed a significantly higher fruit weight in T7 (low ethephon concentration) in comparison to T10 (high ethephon concentration) and T4 (NAA treatment) was recorded on cv. Sarawak. The trend of fruit length without crown on both cultivars decreased as the hormone concentration increased. The peduncle length exhibited significantly shorter in T3 (high CaC<sub>2</sub> concentration) for cv. Pada, and T10 (high ethephon concentration) for cv. Sarawak at 30%, and 15% shorter than other treatments, respectively. In fruit chemical properties, TSS and TA on cv. Pada showed a significant difference, this particular result may have been influenced by an external factor such as the environmental conditions during the fruit ripening stage due to differing harvesting periods between the treatments. Overall, the study suggests that the AIF treatments may affect some of the physical and chemical fruit properties either via the direct or indirect response toward AIF.</p> Sam Nureszuan Sam Sabtu, Noorasmah Saupi, Shiamala Devi Ramaiya, Fauziah Abu Bakar, Phebe Ding Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Trichoderma spp. on Agriculture and Their Identification <p class="p1">Fungi belonging to the genus <em>Trichoderma</em> were discovered in the late 18<sup>th</sup> century and they have been utilized ever since their biocontrol potential was uncovered. Trichoderma species have greatly assisted the blooming of agricultural industries due to their aggressive characteristics against plant pathogens. Their role as a biocontrol agent is owed to their mode of mechanisms: induction of the plant’s defence system, mycoparasitism, the production of secondary metabolites, and rhizosphere competence. Meanwhile, their role as a biofertilizer became evident when studies conducted hitherto showed that they could increase plant’s nutrient uptake, improve the yield of crops, enhance plant’s tolerance to external stresses, and induce the germination of seeds. Since this genus is hyperdiverse, accurate identification of them is indispensable. In the past, <em>Trichoderma</em> spp. were identified via their morphological characteristics. However, the emergence of molecular technology has made the identification of <em>Trichoderma</em> isolates more precise, explicit and rapid. Hence, this paper briefly reviews the accumulated knowledge in respect of this genus. Nevertheless, an extensive study must be done in order to explore the potential in improving the natural strains of <em>Trichoderma</em>. </p> Feodora Grace Japanis, Sharmilah Vetaryan, Naalven Kumar Kumara Raja, Mohd Azinuddin Ahmad Mokhtar, Elya Masya Mohd Fishal Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000