Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Web of Science Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (Myjurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Wickneswari Ratnam) (Dr. Mohd Ikmal Asmuni) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 PREVENTIVE EFFECTS OF TOCOTRIENOL-ENRICHED MIXED FRACTION ON PLAQUE FORMATION AND STABILITY IN EARLY AND ESTABLISHED ATHEROSCLEROSIS <p>Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology for cardiovascular disease. The preventive effects of tocotrienol-enriched mixed fraction (TEMF) on atherogenesis remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the preventive effects of TEMF supplementation on early and established atherosclerosis. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into TEMF (n=10) and placebo (n=10) groups. Treatments were given by oral gavage for 8 weeks followed by 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD) for another two (to induce early atherosclerosis) or eight weeks (established atherosclerosis). At the end of the study, the aorta was dissected, stained with Sudan IV, and qualitatively analysed for the atherosclerotic lesion. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), CRP, nuclear factor kappa beta, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), smooth muscle actin (SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12). Results: In both early and established atherosclerosis groups, there was a significant reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in TEMF compared to placebo. Atherogenic biomarkers; IL-6, CRP, E-selectin, SMA, and MMP-12 were reduced with TEMF supplementation in established atherosclerosis (p&lt;0.05). Neutral effects were seen in early atherosclerosis group. TEMF supplementation in the preventive setting decreased atherosclerosis formation and reduces endothelial inflammation in established atherosclerosis lesions, while increasing plaque stability.</p> EFFAT OMAR, NURUL AISHAH MUHAMMAD, NURUL AIN ABU BAKAR, HAPIZAH NAWAWI Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE RESPONSES OF ROSELLE (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) TO THE APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN DEVELOPING SEEDLESS FRUIT AND MAINTAINING ITS QUALITY <p>Seedless fruit is a fruit developed to possess no mature seeds. Today lifestyle, consumers and/or manufacturers prefer fruit without seeds as removing it is time-consuming and troublesome. Indeed, seedless fruits have better organoleptic attributes than seeded fruits. To produce seedless roselle and maintain its postharvest quality, various spray applications of synthetic and naturally occurring plant growth regulators were investigated. Roselle is perishable and non-climacteric fruit that is exposed to rapid postharvest physiological deterioration following harvest. Thus, producing seedless fruit may reduce time and labor costs during the removing seed process. The experimental treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with different types of plant growth regulators and spray applications. The PGRs treatments at varying frequencies were sprayed on roselle flower buds at 35, 45, 55, and 65 days after transplanting (DAT). Among all PGRs treatments, the plant treated with 800 mg/L GA<sub>3</sub> + seaweed extract (4 sprays) had developed seedless roselle fruit by exhibiting the smallest capsule diameter, capsule volume, and a low number of seeds. In a conclusion, the application of 800 mg/L GA<sub>3</sub> + seaweed extract (4 sprays) was the effective concentration to produce seedless roselle fruit and maintain its postharvest quality.</p> SITI RABIATUL ADAWIYAH SAHIDON, NOR AFIFAH ABD RAHMAN, WAN ZALIHA WAN SEMBOK Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 KESAN PENAMBAHAN MINYAK KELAPA DARA ATAU EKSTRAK ALOE VERA DALAM MENINGKATKAN AKTIVITI ANTIVIRUS IN VITRO GONIOTHALAMIN <p>The antiviral activity of goniothalamin (GTN) from <em>Goniothalamus umbrosus </em>root<em>, </em>virgin coconut oil (VCO) and aloe vera extract (AVE) have been reported, but the combined activity is yet to be determined. This study aims to determine the stability, cytotoxicity and effectiveness of pure GTN, combination of GTN and VCO (GTN+VCO) or combination of GTN and AVE (GTN+ AVE) towards <em>in vitro Human Herpesvirus 1</em> (HHV-1) infection. GTN stability improved significantly (α&lt;0.05) when added with VCO or AVE even though reduction in concentration was noted. The CC<sub>50</sub> values for GTN towards vero cells increased when combined with VCO or AVE, which generally reduces the cytotoxicity. Antiviral activity determination by plaque reduction assay in vero cells showed increase in EC<sub>50</sub> values with reference to GTN concentration. Selective index (SI) values for pure GTN (11.94), GTN+VCO (12.23), and GTN+AVE (25.73) respectively. The mode of antiviral activity for all three test substances was post-treatment essentially more effective when treated 2 hours post-infection to cells. The test substances did not protect cells from virus infection if pre-treated and was not virucidal. In conclusion, AVE stabilises GTN in solution and GTN+AVE improves the anti-HHV-1 activity worth for further examination as plant-based antiviral agent.</p> NAZLINA IBRAHIM, JIA HUI TAI, CHEE WAI YIP, NOREFRINA SHAFINAZ MD NOR Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION ON BIVARIATE ALLOMETRY IN ACTIVE-FEEDING Chrysomya megacephala (FABRICIUS, 1794) (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE) LARVAE <p>The potential use of larval cephalopharyngeal skeleton as an alternative growth indicator in forensic entomology practice was assessed based on its developmental pattern, growth performance and allometric relationship with larval body. <em>Chrysomya megacephala</em> (Fabricius, 1794), was used as an experimental species and larval development were studied at ambient temperatures and relative humidity. Larval body size was measured from furthest part of the head to the last abdominal segment. Cephalopharyngeal skeleton was extracted from the body and measured from the tip of dorsal bridge to the left face of dorsal cornu. Daily progression of larval body length and cephalopharyngeal skeleton length showed the latter significantly had slower growth rates. The allometry of larval body and cephalopharyngeal skeleton showed they were correlated only because both variables increased across the three larval instars, which suggesting a spurious correlation. Separate bivariate correlations between the two variables showed only the first instar larvae had a significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.01) but weak correlation, <em>r</em>=0.33. However, removing the effect of larval instars still produced statistically significant correlation (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) albeit with moderate strength, <em>r=</em>0.57. From this study, there was not enough evidence to support cephalopharyngeal skeleton as an equal or a better alternative to larval body as growth indicator.</p> RAJA MUHAMMAD ZUHA Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND METALS (ZINC AND CADMIUM) IN EMBRYONIC STAGE OF Anabas testudineus: AN ALTERNATIVE FRESHWATER FISH EMBRYO TEST IN THE SOUTHEAST ASIA REGION <p>The fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) was proposed as a promising alternative to the general practice of fish acute toxicity test (FAT) on living animals. To date, the available information on freshwater fish embryos in Southeast Asia is limited. Hence, this study aims to present preliminary data on the single and combined exposure effects of temperature and metals, including zinc and cadmium, on the embryonic development of <em>Anabas testudineus</em>. Over 80% of the embryos died after 10 hour post-fertilization (hpf) in all cadmium treatments, whereas the same effect was only observed in 49.6 and 146 mg/L of zinc treatment. The optimum temperature for rearing the embryos ranged from 27 to 34°C, with a survival rate greater than 90% was recorded. The combined test of zinc + cadmium showed the additive effect with approximately 80% mortality rate at 12 hpf, while the combination of temperature and cadmium had increased the mortality rate up to 100% at 16 hpf. The temperature was found to elevate the cadmium uptake in the embryos and magnified the concentration higher than the concentration in water.</p> MOHD YUSOFF NURULNADIA, BAHAROM MOHAMAD ZAHID, MUHAMMAD AZRI SHARIFF, LOOI YONG CHING, NAJIHAH MOHAMED Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COMBINING IN VITRO AND IN OVO ASSAYS TO SCREEN FOR ANTI-CANCER AND ANTI-ANGIOGENIC EFFECTS OF THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF Mallotus cumingii Mull.Arg. (EUPHORBIACEAE) <p>Treatment for cancer is often challenging and various interventions may have detrimental effects. Due to this, the development of less harmful alternatives such as herbal medicine is essential. The present study aims to determine the leaf phytoconstituents present and the bioactivities of <em>Mallotus cumingii</em> Müll.Arg against cancer cells through the utilization of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay and anti-angiogenesis through CAM or chorioallantoic membrane assay. The leaf extracts obtained three fractions namely, methanolic crude (MCME) extracts, hexane extracts (MCHE), and ethyl acetate extracts (MCEA), and were tested on HCT-116 (human colorectal cancer cell line) for <em>in vitro</em> cytotoxicity, and blood vessel density and branching through <em>in ovo</em> CAM assay. Phytochemical analysis showed that the <em>M. cumingii</em> fractions contain phenolic compounds, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. For <em>in vitro </em>set-up, MCME of <em>M. cumingii</em> were separated into MCHE and MCEA partitions and were tested against HCT-116 and obtained an IC<sub>50</sub> value of &lt; 30 μg/mL, which is deemed active in cytotoxicity. For <em>in ovo</em> set-up, two concentrations of each extract were applied to the duck eggs. Blood vessel density and number of branching points were measured through the ImageJ analysis. All extracts exhibited anti-angiogenic activity, either by decreasing blood vessel density or the number of branching points. Overall, the study demonstrates the potential of <em>M. cumingii</em> as a source of therapeutic agents.</p> ANGELO JUD DE PAZ CRUZ, JENINA KATRINA GALVEZ RAYMUNDO, SONIA DONALDO JACINTO, JAREL ELGIN TOLENTINO, LERRIE ANN DE GUIA IPULAN-COLET Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE ABILITY OF BREADFRUIT STARCH NANOPARTICLE-STABILIZED PICKERING EMULSION FOR ENCAPSULATING CINNAMON ESSENTIAL OIL <p>Cinnamon essential oil (CO) is susceptible to decreased stability during storage, limiting its application in food products. Pickering emulsion stabilized by starch nanoparticles becomes a potential encapsulating method that can improve CO stability. This study aimed to investigate the ability of breadfruit starch nanoparticles-stabilized Pickering emulsion to encapsulate CO with various concentrations. Encapsulation process was carried out using the high-energy emulsification method with dispersing CO (0.05%; 0.1%; 0.5%; 1% w/w) in emulsion. The loading efficiency of CO and emulsion properties were evaluated. Retention of CO was also observed in 7 days-storage. Results showed that 0.5% and 1% CO were encapsulated effectively and stable in Pickering emulsion, with loading efficiency and CO retention ranging from 79.49-81.13% and 78.86-79.20%, respectively. The addition of 0.5% and 1% CO increased yellowness (+a*: 7.45-8.99) as well as decreased whiteness (+L*: 85.77-86.06) and viscosity (629.9-721.8 cP) of Pickering emulsion. However, differences in CO concentrations did not affect the emulsion index of Pickering emulsion. These findings concluded that breadfruit starch nanoparticles-stabilized Pickering emulsion could encapsulate up to 0.5% and 1% CO with the best properties among other treatments. Therefore, breadfruit starch nanoparticles-stabilized Pickering emulsion can be an alternative as encapsulation method, which can later expand the application of CO in food products.</p> BOVI WIRA HARSANTO, SUPRIYANTO, IINDRIANA KARTINI, YUDI PRANOTO Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 BIOACTIVITY OF BLACK CUMIN OIL ON THE SENESCENCE OF HER-2-OVEREXPRESSING BREAST CANCER CELLS <p class="p1">Senescence-induced therapy has been improved to increase its cytotoxicity and reduce the resistance of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy agents. An example of a potential senescence-inducing agent is black cumin oil (BCO) because one of its major compounds, α-pinene, can induce senescent cells. This study aims to explore the senescence-inducing activity of BCO in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells (MCF7/HER2). The yield obtained from hydro-distillation of BCO was 0.54%, and the main compounds were <em>p</em>-cymene (48.03%), dihydrocarveol (11.39%), and α-pinene (11.29%). BCO exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity profile indicated by IC<sub>50</sub>, which was &gt;200 μg/mL in both cell lines. In combination with doxorubicin, BCO did not increase the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. Moreover, BCO induced senescence by increasing 3% of the senescent cells compared with that of the control cells. However, this result was lower than that of the positive control on MCF7/HER2. BCO and doxorubicin combination increased the senescent cells by 3%–7% compared with the positive control on MCF7/HER2 cells. Therefore, the moderate cytotoxicity of BCO could be beneficial to the application of BCO as a supportive agent combined with a chemotherapy drug to increase cancer cells senescent and consequently inhibit cell proliferation.</p> FARADIBA NUR AHLINA, LISYARATIH ANGGRIANI, IRFANI AURA SALSABILA, RIRIS ISTIGHFARI JENIE Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ANTIOXIDANT CAPABILITIES OF Litsea garciae BARK EXTRACTS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS <p>The plant species belonging to the <em>Litsea</em> genus are widely investigated due to their nutritional and medicinal purposes. In this regard, this study is another similar sincere effort in which the antioxidant property and phytochemical composition of<strong> </strong><em>Litsea garciae </em>(<em>L. garciae</em>) bark’s hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were evaluated to confirm its traditional benefits. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined first, followed by an assessment of in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP assays. The composition of the secondary metabolites was determined using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). As a result, methanol extract was recorded to have the highest TPC value aligned with its positive appearance in phytochemical screening. Its antioxidant capacity indicated the least IC<sub>50</sub>. The results indicated that the significant free radical scavenging activity was due to the methanolic extract's high phenolic content. The secondary metabolites found in the methanol extract varied significantly according to UHPLC-MS analysis. The major phenolic compounds were found including N-<em>trans</em>-feruloyl-4-O-methyldopamine, N-<em>cis</em>-feruloyltyramine, epicatechin-(4beta-&gt;6)-epicatechin-(2beta-&gt;7,4beta-&gt;8)-epicatechin, 7-Hydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-propyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one and 9-O-Methylneodunol. In general, the results indicate that <em>L. garciae</em> bark may be a promising source of novel natural compounds with antioxidative properties.</p> SITI ZALEHA RADUAN, QAMAR UDDIN AHMED, ABDUL RAZAK KASMURI, MUHAMAD RUSDI AHMAD RUSMILI, MD ABDUR RASHID MIA, WAN MOHD AZIZI WAN SULAIMAN, MUHAMMAD HAMDI MAHMOOD, MOHD FAROOQ SHAIKH Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFICACY OF ULTRAVIOLET-C IRRADIATION TO SUPPRESS FRUIT DECAY AND RETAIN THE POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus polyrhizus) <p>Dragon fruit (<em>Hylocereus</em> sp.) is a non-climacteric fruit with a short shelf-life and is easily susceptible to diseases. Chemical pesticides are commonly used to control disease in dragon fruit. However, the efficacy of Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at low concentrations as effective germicidal to control fruit decay and prolong the shelf-life on dragon fruit is still unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of UV-C irradiation at lower rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 kJ m<sup>-2</sup>) to control the postharvest decay and maintain the quality of dragon fruit. Results revealed that the quality of dragon fruit is dose-dependent. UV-C irradiated dragon fruits at 0.75 and 1.0 kJ m<sup>-2 </sup>were significantly reduced in fruit body decay, delayed bract yellowing, and prolonged shelf-life. These dosages synergistically slowed down the depletion of total soluble solids and fruit firmness during storage. Also, dragon fruit treated with 1.0 kJ m<sup>-2</sup> UV-C exhibited the lowest pH value after the 6<sup>th</sup> day in storage. UV-C irradiation at this dosage indicated no significant adverse effects in titratable acidity and total water loss. These results indicated that UV-C irradiation at 1.0 kJ m<sup>-2</sup> was effective to reduce post-harvest decay and hence prolong the post-harvest quality of dragon fruit storage under ambient conditions.</p> LEE CHUEN NG, JACK SINK TAN, TUFAIL AHMAD FAUZIAH Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATIONS OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI, Metarhizium anisopliae INOCULATE ON THE TREATED SOILS TOWARDS Paederus fuscipes <p>Rove beetle, <em>Paederus fuscipes</em> Curtis is a natural predator of several crop pests in the agriculture ecosystem, however, their high intrusion into human settlements caused them to become public health concern due to Paedarus dermatitis infection among humans. The entomopathogenic effectiveness of <em>Metarhizium anisopliae</em> Mechnikov was tested as biological control towards adults <em>Paederus fuscipes</em> by inoculating on soils. The mortality of <em>P. fuscipes</em> was observed and data were subjected to analysis using ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier method. Results show that <em>P. fuscipes</em> tested with the highest concentration at 1.3 × 10<sup>10</sup> conidia/mL exhibited the shortest mean mortality time at 11.0 ± 2.5 days and survival time of 7.6 ± 0.7 days, yet the second-highest concentration exhibited at 2.2 × 10<sup>9</sup> showed mean mortality of 18.4 ± 4.2 days and survival time of 11.9 ± 0.8 days. Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) pairwise comparison indicated the significant differences between the highest concentration of 1.3 × 10<sup>10 </sup>with the control (χ<sup>2 </sup>= 62.3, df=1 <em>p</em>&lt;0.0005). Both mean mortality time and survival time of <em>P. fuscipes</em> showed inconsistent trends from the highest concentration of <em>M. anisopliae</em> towards the lowest. Pathogenicity was observed at the concentrations of 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>9</sup>, and 10<sup>10</sup> after performing Koch’s postulates. The results were unexpected but could indicate that <em>M. anisopliae </em>has the potential to be a biocontrol agent at a higher concentration.</p> ANDY FU HAO TAN, HIDEYUKI NAGAO, WAN FATMA ZUHARAH Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 SKIPJACK TUNA FISHING SEASON AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH OCEANOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS IN PALABUHANRATU WATERS, WEST JAVA <p>Skipjack tuna (<em>Katsuwonus pelamis</em>) is the main catch species in Indonesian Palabuhanratu waters. The dynamics of skipjack fishing areas are influenced by oceanographic parameters such as sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration. This study aims to predict the skipjack fishing season, analyze the dynamics of oceanographic conditions, especially the distribution of sea surface temperature and the distribution of chlorophyll-a, and determine the relationship between skipjack fishing season and the dynamics of the distribution of sea surface temperature and the distribution of chlorophyll-a in the waters of Palabuhanratu, West Java. Catch per unit effort analysis was used to determine the fishing season index, while the dynamics of sea surface temperature and distribution of chlorophyll-a were analyzed from MODIS image data. The results showed that skipjack fishing season in Palabuhanratu waters was from July to November. Monthly sea surface temperatures range from 26-30℃ with an average value of 29℃. The distribution value of chlorophyll-a concentration ranged from 0.09 mg/m<sup>3</sup> to 0.51 mg/m<sup>3</sup> with an average value of 0.23 mg/m<sup>3</sup>. Skipjack tuna production tends to increase when sea surface temperatures are low and chlorophyll-a concentrations increase.</p> TRI WIJI NURANI, PRIHATIN IKA WAHYUNINGRUM, MUHAMMAD IQBAL, NURANI KHOERUNNISA, GILAR BUDI PRATAMA, ELVANRI ANGGI WIDIANTI; MUHAMMAD FIKRI KURNIAWAN Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PROPOLIS EXTRACT COATING ON POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF BANANA ARTIFICIALLY INOCULATED WITH Colletotrichum gloesporioides <p>Coating is one of the methods to prevent postharvest loss in food industry. Propolis seems to be promising as a coating due its waxy properties, high antifungal activity and less toxicity. In this study, propolis ethanol extract coating were tested for the antifungal activity against <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em>, the causative fungus that caused anthracnose disease on banana (<em>Musa acuminata</em>). All samples were artificially inoculated with <em>C. gloeosporioides </em>and the disease severity index (DSI) was measured. Other postharvest qualities of banana tested were weight loss, total soluble solid (TSS), colour and titratable acidity (TA). Results showed that the control banana was more susceptible to the fungal infection (60% necrosis) compared to the treated banana. The propolis coating successfully inhibited the fungus activity of <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> activity on banana during storage. The higher concentration of extract coating seems to be better effectiveness against the fungus. Moreover the control banana showed higher weight loss (6.92%) and total soluble solid (p&lt;0.05) compared to coated banana during storage. In conclusion, banana treated with 11% concentration of propolis coating are promising for improving the colour, total soluble solid content and titratable acidity and able to inhibit artificially anthracnose disease caused by <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> on banana.</p> AHMAD AZFAR MOHAMAD AREFF, SITI NORDAHLIAWATE MOHAMED SIDIQUE, MOHD NIZAM LANI, FAUZIAH TUFAIL AHMAD Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava) AND SENDUDUK LEAVES (Melastoma malabathricum L.) EXTRACT GEL TOWARDS THE INFLAMMATION MARKERS AND COLLAGENS ON INDUCED MALE RATS (SPRAGUE DAWLEY) WITH DIABETES <p>This study aimed to measure the effectiveness of a mixed extract gel from <em>Melastoma malabathricum</em> L. (ML) and <em>Psidium guajava</em> leaves (PG) on inflammatory markers and collagen distribution wound tissue in rats (Sprague Dawley) induced with diabetes. This was an experimental study with a randomized block design to 20 male rats divided into 4 treatment groups. Group 1 is negative control (gel blank), Group 2 is positive control (clindamycin gel), Group 3 used 4% gel formula mixture of ML + PG leaves, and Group 4 used 6% gel formula, a mixture of ML + PG leaves extract the gel. The results showed that there was a significant difference (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) in total Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) treated with 6% extract gel (ML + PG) from a level of 25.0 pg/mL on the 2<sup>nd</sup> day to 1.68 pg/mL on the 6<sup>th</sup> day. The smallest wound diameter was 0.75 mm<sup>2</sup> as observed on the 6<sup>th </sup>day in rats treated with 6% extract gel (ML + PG). The largest distribution of collagen area was 219,8 (86,2%) treated by 6% extract gel (ML + PG).</p> TONNY CORTIS MAIGODA, REFDANITA, IDRAMSYAH Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECTS OF BANANA, POTATO, AND COCONUT WATER IN THE REGENERATION OF Ficus carica cv. Japanese BTM 6 <p>Fig (<em>Ficus carica</em> L.) belongs to the family of Moraceae and its fruits are known to be nutritious to the human diet. Organic additives function as an alternative to replace conventional carbon sources besides containing other nutritional components required for plant growth. This study aims to evaluate the effects of organic additives incorporated in culture media for the regeneration of <em>Ficus carica</em> cv. Japanese BTM6. <em>In vitro</em> shoots were cultured in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of BAP without sucrose and with different concentrations of organic additives (potato, banana and coconut water). MS medium supplemented with 20 g of sucrose and 1 mg/L of BAP (positive control) showed the highest number of shoots (2.45 ± 0.16), shoot height (4.02 ± 0.18 cm) and number of leaves (8.33 ± 0.44). However, the incorporation of coconut water was observed to also support the induction of shoots, shoot height and leaves. Treatment of 200 mL/L of coconut water was found to significantly improve the number of leaves (5.08 ± 0.81 leaves per explant) in comparison to other organic additives. The study concludes that coconut water can be a feasible alternative as carbon source in the regeneration of <em>Ficus carica</em> cv. Japanese BTM6.</p> YONG JUN LEE, DAHMENDRA SRISKANDA, SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM, BEE LYNN CHEW Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MOLECULAR PCR ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF Ganoderma PATHOGENIC TO OIL PALM IN MALAYSIA <p><em>Ganoderma boninense</em> is a fungal pathogen that causes basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. Being a serious disease problem to the oil palm industry, monitoring and detecting the pathogen is of the utmost importance to reduce disease spread and facilitate effective management strategies. Because traditional culture-based assay is time-consuming, labour-intensive and required special skills in mycology, plant pathologists are turning to more accurate, sensitive and fast methods such as molecular techniques. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed to detect pathogenic <em>Ganoderma</em> species causing BSR disease in oil palm using a primer designed based on the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The effectiveness of conventional and real-time PCR assays was analysed compared to the traditional isolation-based assay. For artificially inoculated oil palm plantlets, consistent detection of <em>G. boninense</em> was observed. Real-time PCR assay has shown to be more sensitive and rapid in detecting <em>G. boninense</em> in field samples and could potentially serve as a validation tool to other detection techniques for implementation of effective disease control measures.</p> NUR HAILINI ZAINOL HILMI, ABU SEMAN IDRIS, MOHAMED MAIZATUL-SURIZA, AHMAD ZAIRUN MADIHAH, RAMLI NUR-RASHYEDA Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 POTENTIAL MEDICINAL HERB FOR CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON Salviae miltiorrhizae <p><em>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated risk factors have been ranked the number 1 cause of mortality in non-communicable diseases worldwide and Malaysia. The high statistic in CVD mortality indicates gaps and limitations in current treatment strategies using long-term drug prescription therapies. Hence, an immediate quest for alternative and effective treatments is needed. Medicinal herbs, which are ethnopharmacologically used to treat a wide range of conditions, have been used as an alternative or supplementary treatment for CVDs and their associated risk factors. The roots of </em><em>Salviae miltiorrhizae</em> have been traditionally used for centuries to treat various diseases including neurological disorders, cancer, and even coronary heart disease. Increasing evidence demonstrated a pharmacological basis for the action of <em>S. miltiorrhizae</em> and its active compounds, suggesting its potential in treating CVD. The objectives of this review were first to summarize published literature and synthesize the new body of knowledge on the use of <em>S. miltiorrhizae</em> as the potential medicinal herb that will positively impact the cardiovascular system, and secondly to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in promoting cardiovascular health. It is hoped that identification of key regulatory pathways by lipophilic and hydrophilic active compounds from <em>S. miltiorrhizae</em> will aid further investigation of its safety and efficacy to promote the use of evidence-based traditional medicinal herbs in alleviating symptoms and improve the prognosis of CVDs and their associated risk factors.</p> TING WEI NG, PAULINA PEI SUU TAN, HOOI MIN LIM, DEVARAJ NAVIN KUMAR, SHAMSUL MOHD ZAIN, TECK YEW LOW, YUH FEN PUNG Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Applied Biology Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000