Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) - Web of Science, Elsevier, Mycite (MyJurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> en-US <p>Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (<a href=""></a>). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission</p> (Dr. Mohd Ikmal Asmuni) (Dr. Siti Nurfaeiza Abd Razak) Sun, 31 Mar 2024 04:08:54 +0000 OJS 60 The Potential of Mucor irregularis Isolated From Fruits in Producing Microbial Lipid <p class="p1">In this present study, potential oleaginous Mucorales fungi that have been isolated from fruits from local markets in Sleman, Indonesia, were screened for lipid production. A total of six fungal cultures were isolated and screened using a semisynthetic medium with glucose as a carbon source and a limited nitrogen supply. The highest lipid content was observed in isolate JR 1.1, up to 43.46% and 3.28 g/L lipid yield. Therefore, it was selected for molecular identification and fatty acid analysis. The result showed that JR 1.1 was identified as <em>Mucor irregularis</em>. The fatty acid profile of JR 1.1 showed 16.89% palmitoleic acid, 4.85% oleic acid, 45.22% linolenic acid, 30.79% gamma-linolenic acid, and 2.25% other fatty acids. It can be concluded that <em>M. irregularis </em>JR 1.1 is a potential strain to be used as a lipid producer for biodiesel feedstock. Further studies are recommended to optimize lipid productivity and improve fatty acid composition.</p> Alya Haura, Miftahul Ilmi Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antibiofilm Efficacy and Mode of Action of Etlingera elatior Extracts Against Staphylococcus aureus <p class="p1"><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> represents a major bacterial human pathogen that causes a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Various medicinal plants have been used to control its infection, however, the effect of <em>Etlingera elatior</em> on <em>S. aureus</em> biofilm is still uncertain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of <em>E. elatior</em> extracts against <em>S. aureus</em>. Phytochemical screening was carried out to determine the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids in different extracts (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous) of <em>E. elatior</em>. Antibacterial activities were determined by disk diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration assay (MBC) while antibiofilm activities were determined by crystal violet assay and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. All the extracts were found to contain phenols, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. Only acetone extract showed a high amount of saponins. Among all the extracts, acetone extract showed the widest inhibition zone (21.23±0.2 mm), lowest MIC (20 mg/mL), and lowest MBC (50 mg/mL) values. The acetone extract also showed the highest antibiofilm activities at all biofilm stages (6 hr:<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>12%-31%; 12 hr:<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>20%-36%; 18 hr:<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>27%-32%; 24 hr:<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>5%-46%). Further analysis with FTIR spectroscopy revealed spectral changes associated with proteins (1700–1400 cm<sup>-1</sup>), phospholipids, and polysaccharides (1300–700 cm<sup>-1</sup>) in <em>S. aureus</em> biofilm following the treatment with 200 mg/mL of <em>E. elatior</em> extracts. In conclusion, <em>E. elatior</em> is a potential source of antibacterial and antibiofilm agents to control <em>S. aureus</em> infections. Changes in the composition of proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides may mediate the biofilm inhibition by <em>E. elatior</em> extracts. The acetone extract of <em>E. elatior</em> may be useful for various applications such as antimicrobial topical cream and wound dressing.</p> Hanis Fadhlina Hamdan, Ernie Eileen Rizlan Ross, Mohd Taufiq Mat Jalil, Mohd Akmal Hashim, Mohd Fakharul Zaman Raja Yahya Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An in silico Approach For Identification of Potential Therapeutic Targets For Cancer Treatment From Celastrus hindsii Benth <p class="p1"><em>Celastrus hindsii</em> Benth., a medicinal plant celebrated for its traditionally medicinal and practically therapeutic properties, has been used for generations in Vietnam to support the treatment of ulcers, tumors, and inflammation. The difference between several phenotypes, primarily identified as Broad Leaf (BL) and Narrow Leaf (NL), has been clarified by convincing scientific evidence through our previous proteomics study, which also revealed several bioactive proteins and peptides. Therefore, based on the findings, this study further investigated their therapeutic properties using a bioinformatics tool (BLASTP) and analyzing literature data. The results showed the distinguished variations in protein profile between the NL and BL proteomes and revealed five significant proteins with therapeutic properties. Of these, three proteins can have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity and have been proven effective in cancer treatment. Therefore, <em>C. hindsii</em>, particularly the BL phenotype with elevated levels of therapeutic proteins, could be a promising plant candidate for future intensive research and applications for cancer treatment.</p> Thanh Loan Pham, Van Huy Nguyen Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ciri Adaptasi Anatomi Daun Bougainvillea spectabilis W. Yang Dijangkiti Virus Bougainvillea chlorotic vein-banding <p class="p1">Kajian anatomi daun telah dijalankan ke atas <em>Bougainvillea spectabilis</em> yang dijangkiti virus <em>Bougainvillea chlorotic vein-banding </em>(BCVB). Objektif kajian ialah untuk mengenal pasti ciri adaptasi anatomi daun <em>B. spectabilis</em> yang dijangkiti virus BCVB melalui perbandingan dengan ciri anatomi daun sihat dan mengenalpasti sel dan tisu yang beradaptasi terhadap kehadiran virus. Kaedah kajian melibatkan hirisan dengan mikrotom gelongsor pada lamina, petiol dan tulang daun, siatan epidermis adaksial dan abaksial daun, penjernihan peruratan, pewarnaan, pelekapan dan cerapan di bawah mikroskop cahaya. Hasil kajian menunjukkan, kandungan klorofil sangat rendah pada lamina dan tepi daun, pertambahan bilangan berkas vaskular, tisu vaskular, dan sel kolenkima, serta kerosakan dinding sel pada daun yang dijangkiti. Hasil cerapan ciri anatomi epidermis abaksial daun menunjukkan daun dijangkiti virus mempunyai bilangan, indeks dan saiz stomata yang rendah berbanding daun sihat. Hasil kajian juga membuktikan perubahan pada bentuk dinding epidermis abaksial dan penebalan dinding sel epidermis adaksial daun yang dijangkiti virus BCVB. Kehadiran hablur dan peruratan tertier kelihatan kurang jelas dicerap pada daun yang dijangkiti virus. Perubahan pada sel dan tisu pada daun yang dijangkiti virus BCVB merupakan tindak balas terhadap jangkitan dan adaptasi daun terhadap jangkitan virus. Hasil kajian ini boleh digunakan sebagai rujukan untuk mengesan jangkitan BCVB dan kaedah kawalan yang boleh dilakukan kepada sel dan tisu yang dijangkiti.</p> Noraini Talip, Jayasrie Eyamalay, Mohamad Ruzi Abdul Rahman, Mohd Nizam Mohd Said, Haja Maideen Kader Maideen, Nik Norhazrina Nik Mohd Kamil, Aqilah Mustafa Bakray, Shamsul Khamis, Ahmad Fitri Zohari, Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Hamidun Bunawan, Nurnida Mohd Kamal Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phylogenetic Relationship of Diadema: Emphasis on The Two Distinct Clades of D. Setosum With The Inclusion of Long Spine Black Sea Urchin From Malaysian Borneo <p class="p1"><em>Diadema</em> urchins (family Diadematidae) are ecologically important bioindicators of coral reef ecosystems and seagrass beds. <em>Diadema</em> urchins which are widely distributed and broadcast spawners, have been frequently utilized as model invertebrate species for zoogeography research of the Indo-West Pacific region. So far, Malaysian Borneo, located at the geographic center of Maritime Southeast Asia, has been under-sampled. This study aims to fill this sampling gap and provide the first record of<em> Diadema setosum</em> from Malaysian Borneo using genetic diagnostics to conclusively establish the clade-level identity of the species. According to Cytochrome Oxidase I gene analysis, <em>Diadema</em> is monophyletic. Seven species of <em>Diadema</em> namely <em> Diadema palmeri</em>, <em> Diadema clarki</em>, <em> Diadema mexicanum</em>, <em> Diadema antillarum</em>, <em> Diadema paucispinum</em>, <em> Diadema africanum</em>, and <em> Diadema savignyi</em>, formed their subclades with strong bootstrap values, demonstrating interspecific variation. The findings of this study provide further evidence for the presence of two distinct monophyletic clades, with all <em>D. setosum</em> individuals forming a monophyletic clade that later split into two distinct subclades, dividing Red Sea population (<em>D. setosum-b</em>) and Indo-West Pacific populations (<em>D. setosum-a</em>), supported by a significant genetic divergence value ranging from 6.3% to 9.1%. This study also revealed notable levels of nucleotide and population subdivision between the <em>D. setosum</em> from the Indo-West Pacific and the Red Sea populations (Nst = 0.891; Fst = 0.886) with a low number of migrants per generation (Nm = 0.065). This may suggest geographic isolation due to ecological factors preventing each other from surviving in the territory of the other, or that the two clades of <em>D. setosum</em> were a separate species. Additional morphological and molecular analysis is required in the future to ascertain the level of divergence and further resolve the taxonomic confusion within the genus <em>Diadema.</em></p> Nursyuhaida Md Shahid, Ruhana Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Medium Optimization for Biobutanol Production From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) Hydrolysate By Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 <p class="p1">The study aims to optimize the medium composition for biobutanol production using a Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) hydrolysate by <em>Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum </em>N1-4. Various nutrient factors affecting biobutanol production were screened using the Plackett-Burman design. These factors included: NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub>, KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, K<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub>, MgSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, MnSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, FeSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, yeast extract, cysteine, PABA, biotin, and thiamin. The results were analyzed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA), which showed that cysteine (<em>P</em>=0.008), NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3 </sub>(<em>P</em>=0.011) dan yeast extract (<em>P</em>=0.036) had significant effects on biobutanol production. The established model from the ANOVA analysis had a significant value of <em>P</em><sub>model</sub>&gt;<em>F </em>= 0.0299 with an <em>F</em>-value of 32.82 which explains that the factors can explain in detail the variation in the data about the average and the interpretation is true with an R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.993. The estimated maximum biobutanol production was 10.56 g/L, whereas the optimized medium produced 15.49 g/L of biobutanol. Process optimizations with optimum concentration of cysteine, NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3,</sub> and yeast extract have produced 21.33 g/L biobutanol which is a 37.7% improvement from the non-optimized medium. The findings show that PKC hydrolysate with the addition of optimal concentrations of the three types of medium namely, cysteine (0.15 g/L), NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub> (0.50 g/L), and yeast extract (1.5 g/L) during ABE fermentation, yielded a maximum biobutanol concentration of 21.33 g/L. Therefore, the results of this study provide good indications for promoting PKC hydrolysate as a new source of novel substrates with great potential in producing high biobutanol through ABE fermentation by <em>C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum</em> N1-4.</p> Muhd Arshad Amin, Hafiza Shukor, Noor Fazliani Shoparwe, Muaz Mohd Zaini Makhtar, Aidil Abdul Hamid, Wichitpan Rongwong Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Teratogenic Effect of Dimefluthrin-Based Mosquito Coils on Pregnant Mice (Mus musculus L.) <p class="p1">Dimefluthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, claims to be safe and harmless to mammals. However, the potential risk of mosquito coils containing dimefluthrin to pregnant mice remains uncertain. This study aimed to examine the teratogenic effect of dimefluthrin when inhaled by pregnant mice at different stages of gestation. The study used mosquito coils with 0.031% dimefluthrin as the active ingredient and was exposed to pregnant mice at various pregnancy stages. The results revealed that mosquito coils with dimefluthrin had teratogenic effects, reducing the number of live fetuses and increasing the number of dead fetuses, especially from the seventh to the eighteenth day of pregnancy. Additionally, there was a decrease in fetal weight, length, and volume, particularly during the seventh to eighth day of gestation. Hemorrhages were observed as fetal abnormalities and were highest three hr after exposure every day during pregnancy. The conclusion of this research is pregnant mice exposed to mosquito coil smoke containing dimefluthrin experienced a decrease in the number of live fetuses and an increase in fetal mortality. While there was no significant impact on reabsorption, the fetuses showed reduced weight, and size, and an increased incidence of hemorrhages when exposed for three hr daily during pregnancy.</p> Efrizal, Chika Afrilia Ikbal, Robby Jannatan Copyright (c) 1970 Malaysian Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nodulation and Yields of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) Varieties at Varying Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates in Lafia, Nigeria <p class="p1">Soybean production in Lafia, southern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria, is impacted by soil phosphorus deficiency, affecting nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and overall crop productivity. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons with different phosphorus fertilizer rates (0, 13, 26 &amp; 39 Kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>) and six improved soybean varieties (TGX 1985-10F, TGX 1987-10F, TGX 1448-2E, TGX 1987-62F, TGX 1989-19F &amp; TGX 1835-10E) to determine the effects of phosphorus fertilizer rates on nodulation and yields of soybean varieties. The results showed significant variation in soybean nodulation and yields when different phosphorus fertilizer rates were used. Among the six improved soybean varieties tested, TGX 1989-19F and TGX 1987-62F varieties performed best with 39 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>. The results also show that plots that received a 39 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest nodule number (26.3 &amp; 28.7) and nodule weight (203.5 &amp; 221.2 mg/plant) significantly in 2018 and 2019, respectively, compared to those with lower phosphorus rates. The effect of phosphorus fertilizer rates on soybean yields was apparent, with the 39 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> phosphorus treatment yielding significantly higher yields than the lower phosphorus treatments. Notably, the TGX 1989-19F variety consistently outperformed the others, yielding the highest yield (1624.0 kg/ha). Based on the results, it is recommended that soybean farmers in the Lafia region consider increasing their phosphorus rates to 39 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for improved nodulation and subsequent yield gains. The TGX 1989-19F variety, due to its exceptional response to this phosphorus level, could be prioritized for cultivation to maximize returns. However, further research and on-farm trials must validate these findings across multiple growing seasons and farm management practices.</p> Jibrin Isa Mangwa, Fauziah Abu bakar, Ibrahim Muhammad Haruna, Ibrahim Abdullahi Jaji, Mohammmad Gwam Sodah, Mohamad Maulana Magiman Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancement of Growth Performance and Body Coloration Through The Inclusion of Torch Ginger Powder in The Feed of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) <p class="p1">Red tilapia (<em>Oreochromis </em>sp<em>.</em>) is a highly produced aquaculture fish among freshwater species. Coloration is an important factor in determining consumer preferences. Therefore, an 8-week experiment was conducted to enhance the growth performance and body coloration through the inclusion of torch ginger in the feed of red tilapia. Five experimental feeds were prepared from commercial feed (crude protein: 34%, crude lipid: 5%) containing torch ginger powder at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, &amp; T<sub>4</sub>) inclusion levels while feeding without torch ginger act as a control (T<sub>0</sub>). Red tilapia (Initial body weight: 0.4±0.1g; Initial total length: 4.0±0.1cm) were distributed at stocking number 20 fish/tank into fiberglass tanks with a capacity of 80 L and triplicates for each treatment. The fish were fed with experimental feeds until satiation. The growth of fish was significantly higher (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) when the fish fed with T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>3 </sub>compared to control treatment T<sub>0</sub>. Moreover, the feed intake was significantly increased (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) when the torch ginger powder was added to the experimental feeds. In addition, the FCR was significantly better (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) when the fish fed on T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2,</sub> and T<sub>3 </sub>compared to T<sub>0</sub>. The inclusion of torch ginger powder in the feed did not significantly affect (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) the body protein and lipids of the experimental fish. The increment of redness was significantly higher (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) when the fish fed with T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3,</sub> and T<sub>4 </sub>compared to T<sub>0</sub>. However, it showed a declining trend of redness when the inclusion of torch ginger increased to 5.0% and above. Thus, the present study suggested that the inclusion of torch ginger powder improved the performance and enhanced the body coloration of juvenile red tilapia. However, a further increase of torch ginger powder by more than 2.5% did not help in the enhancement of the body coloration.</p> Norfazreena Mohd Faudzi, David Dexter Baru, Fui Fui Ching, Shigeharu Senoo Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Metals Accumulation of Tropical Shrub Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae) Populations and Their Relation To Soil Edaphic Factor <p class="p1"><em>Melastoma malabathricum </em>L<em>.</em> (Melastomataceae) is a widely distributed tropical shrub that grows in Southeast Asia. Recent research found that <em>M. malabathricum</em> has a bioremediatory potential that can accumulate high concentrations of toxic metals such as Al, Pb, As, and Cr. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the metal hyperaccumulation in <em>M. malabathricum</em> from various populations and their relation to soil edaphic factors. We collected mature leaves and soils of <em>M. malabathricum</em> from 15 different populations in Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, and Pahang in Peninsular Malaysia. These 15 populations consist of lowland forests, dump sites, riparian, oil palm and rubber plantations, paddy fields, and mining sites. We found that <em>M. malabathricum</em> accumulated high concentrations of Al (3.45±1.58 to 8.697±1.61 mg g<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Fe (1.02±0.02 to 1.07±0.04 mg g<sup>-1</sup>), Pb (0.013±0.001 to 0.016±0.001 mg g<sup>-1</sup>), As (0.008±0.005 to 0.23±0.004 mg g<sup>-1</sup>), and Cr (0.005±0.0003 to 0.02±0.01 mg g<sup>-1</sup>). The highest concentration of soil Al was 85.95±5.00 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, Fe with 69.960±7.47mg g<sup>-1</sup>, Pb with 0.192±0.03 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, As with 0.156±0.06 mg g<sup>-1</sup> and Cr with 0.133±0.03 mg g<sup>-1</sup>. We found no significant association between high foliar metal concentrations of the metals (Al, Pb, As &amp; Cr) with the soil chemical properties but some soil metal elements were intercorrelated with foliar metal concentrations. Understanding the potential of <em>M. malabathricum</em> in accumulating high levels of metal elements, provides useful information for phytoremediation works.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Further research is required to investigate the mechanism uptake and tolerance of heavy metals in <em>M. malabathricum. </em></p> Norshahida Saberi, Mohd Izuan Effendi Halmi, Noor Amalina Ramle, Khairil Mahmud Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparisons on Growth Performance, Survivability, Organoleptic Qualities and Economic Feasibility of Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer) Reared in Different Salinities <p class="p1">Asian seabass, <em>Lates calcarifer</em> is among the most cultured aquaculture species in the Southeast Asian region due to its remarkable tolerance for a diverse environmental fluctuation. In aquaculture, salinity has a direct influence on many biological, physiological and market value of any cultured fish. This study investigated the impacts of different salinities (0, 15, &amp; 30 ppt) on Asian seabass growth, body indices, feeding performance, organoleptic qualities, and production cost for 85 days. Ninety fish were reared in 700-liter tanks equipped with recirculation system with 10 fish each tank. They were fed with commercial marine feed.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>The findings revealed Asian seabass in 15 ppt attained significantly higher (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) body weight (470.40 ± 41.16 g), total length (31.51 ± 0.81 cm), total feed intake (309.28 ± 35.66 g/fish) and daily feed intake (3.64 ± 0.42 g/fish/day) compared to 30 ppt but remained insignificant with 0 ppt. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) in terms of body weight gain, specific growth rate, body indices, and feed conversion ratio of Asian seabass when reared in different salinities. The organoleptic qualities showed that rearing Asian seabass in different salinities has no significant effect (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) on odour, appearance, texture, and flavour score. However, the overall acceptance score of Asian seabass reared in 30 ppt (3.53 ± 0.22) was significantly higher (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) compared to 15 ppt but remained insignificant with 0 ppt. Economically, Asian seabass cultured in 15 ppt yielded the most optimal conditions for profitable production. The findings conclude 15 ppt can promotes enhanced <span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>growth performance and profitability, while 0 ppt and 30 ppt can promote consumer acceptance positively.</p> Mohammed Noorfaiz Yusof, Norfazreena Mohd Faudzi, Nur Aziemah Jasni, Elexson Nillian, Shigeharu Senoo, Fui Fui Ching Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Food Waste on The Growth Performance, Waste Reduction Efficiency and Nutritional Composition of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens (L.), Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae <p class="p1">The rate of solid waste generation, especially in Malaysia, has become one of the major concerns for environmental and public health issues. Food waste accounts for the highest percentage of solid waste that ends up in landfills. Due to the living nature of humans and their involvement in agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities, the disposal of food waste happens on a regular basis. Due to the absence of an incineration plant, these wastes are commonly sent into landfills which are considered to be the most cost-effective method for disposal. Nevertheless, consideration for an alternative disposal method such as composting shall not be ruled out entirely. One of the established methods for composting food waste is the utilization of the larvae of the Black Soldier Fly. A study was conducted to assess the growth and nutritional composition, waste reduction capacity and nutritional composition of Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) reared on food waste. We found that the larvae reared with the food waste and effective microorganism (EM), LFWEM (BSFL reared with a mixture of food waste and effective microorganisms), have a slightly better relative growth rate (2.66 ± 0.35 day<sup>-1</sup>) compared to larvae reared with only food waste (2.44 ± 0.17 day<sup>-1</sup>). The waste reduction index was higher in the LFWEM group (5.36 ± 0.18 g/day) compared to the control group, LFC (BSFL reared with chicken feed) (4.85 ± 0.03 g/day) and the LFW (BSFL reared with food waste) group (5.13 ± 0.17 g/day). The nutritional composition of the BSFL reared using food waste shows some potential as it surpasses some of the amount of essential amino acids including Arginine, Histidine, Threonine and Valine, found in the commercially available animal feeds. This finding serves as a baseline to propose potential replacements for animal protein by using BSFL reared with food waste.</p> Muhammad Nur Hariri, Ahmad Razali Ishak, Razi Ikhwan Md Rashid Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Growth Performance and Morpho-Meristic Characteristics in The Progenies of Barbonymus gonionotus and Barbonymus schwanenfeldii <p class="p1">Recognizing the potential benefits of combining the favorable traits of both species, this study was designed to evaluate the culture performance and morphometric variations of F1 hybrids derived from artificial reciprocal hybridization between <em>Barbonymus schwanenfeldii</em> and <em>Barbonymus gonionotus</em>. Four crosses were successfully produced, namely <em>B. gonionotus</em> ♀ × <em>B. gonionotus</em> ♂ (GG), <em>B. gonionotus</em> ♀ × <em>B. schwanenfeldii</em> ♂ (GS), <em>B. schwanenfeldii</em> ♀ × <em>B. schwanenfeldii</em> ♂ (SS) and <em>B. schwanenfeldii</em> ♀ × <em>B. gonionotus</em> ♂ (SG). Uniform-sized fingerlings of pure GG, hybrid GS, pure SS, and hybrid SG were stocked at a rate of 50 fingerlings per fiberglass 1-tonne tank. The fingerlings were fed a commercial tilapia pellet (Dinding Malaysia) with 35% crude protein, the feeding was done twice a day, at 9:00 and 16:00, with equal portions given at each feeding. After 8 weeks of culture, the mean weight gained by GG, GS, SS, and SG was 7.09 ± 0.06, 5.75 ± 0.15, 4.69 ± 0.21, and 5.60 ± 0.17 g, respectively. The growth performance of the hybrid GS 5.75 ± 0.15 was significantly higher compared to the slow-growing SS (4.69 ± 0.21) but lower than the value recorded in GG (7.09 ± 0.06) under identical rearing conditions. A similar trend was observed in the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) (%/day). In terms of FCR value, hybrid GS had the best value (1.10 ± 0.10) compared to hybrid SG (1.31 ± 0.13) or pure species (1.29 ± 0.09, 1.39 ± 0.13). Reciprocal hybrids showed intermediate morphometric traits between the two species; The reciprocal hybrids displayed intermediate morphometric traits that fell between the two parental species. The results of the discriminant function analysis confirmed that there were significant differences in the characters of all four species.</p> Jalaluddin Mostamand, Yuzine Esa Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Foraging Behaviour of Three Shorebird Species on Coastal Mudflats of Southwestern Sarawak <p class="p1">Many shorebirds are long-distance migrants and they congregate on intertidal mudflats for feeding throughout their non-breeding season. Despite being one of the key staging sites for migratory shorebirds, data on shorebirds foraging ecology in Sarawak is insufficient for the understanding of the interaction between shorebirds and their behaviour. This study aimed to determine the foraging behaviour of Whimbrel (<em>Numenius phaeopus</em>), Bar-tailed Godwit (<em>Limosa lapponica</em>) and Terek Sandpiper (<em>Xenus cinereus</em>) at Asajaya and Buntal mudflats. Data collection of this study was conducted at low tide, during two non-breeding seasons with a total of 12 months of sampling. Focal observations were conducted within a 50 m × 50 m quadrat. A total of 8 exclusive foraging techniques were observed for the three shorebird species, including: pecking, probing, picking, stabbing, snapping, submerging, sweeping and ingesting. Terek Sandpiper displayed all the exclusive foraging behaviours, whereas Whimbrel and Bar-tailed Godwit showed 7 and 5 behaviours, respectively. The three shorebirds also displayed non-exclusive foraging behaviours such as walking, preening and defecating. Spearman correlation test indicates a positive correlation between the foraging behaviours performed among three shorebird species. All three shorebird species adopted similar mixed foraging strategies comprising pecking and probing, with an exception on supplementary behaviours observed in Whimbrel and Terek Sandpiper. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis showed a strong correlation between picking and ingesting behaviours, suggesting a high chance of foraging success with the presence of picking behaviour. The outcome of this study is crucial in understanding how shorebirds maximise their behavioural performance when foraging as well as to assist in formulating better conservation strategies for targeted migratory shorebird species and coastal mudflats.</p> Wen Teng Ng, Mohamad Fizl Sidq Ramji, Jongkar Grinang, Andrew Alek Tuen Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Updated Review of Ethnobotany, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth <p class="p1">There are a myriad of potential medicinal plants worldwide. Researchers have found some, while others are still unexplored. <em>Orthosiphon stamineus</em> Benth. (family: Lamiaceae), commonly known as the cat's whiskers plant, is a well-known herbal plant with many medicinal uses. All the parts of <em>O. stamineus</em>, such as the leaves, stems, flowers, and seeds, have their uses. More than 140 pure compounds were identified and isolated from different extracts of <em>O. stamineus</em>, particularly leaf extracts and stem oils. Flavonoids are the most abundant phytoconstituents found in <em>O. stamineus</em> leaf extract. Several pharmacological activities have been studied and validated using extracts as well as pure compounds. Multiple phytoconstituents attributed to these pharmacological activities such as diuretics, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiepileptic, etc., have been discovered. Considering the purported benefits of <em>O. stamineus</em>, the present review critically evaluates and discusses the pharmacognosy, taxonomy, ethnobotany, pharmacological activities, and phytochemistry of <em>O. stamineus</em> and provides updated information.</p> Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam, Dania Najiha Hasnu, Abdullah Khan, Ching Siang Tan, Bama Menon, Venkateshan Narayanan, Khang Wen Goh, Asmuni Mohd Ikmal, Noraini Talip, Poonguzhali Subramanian, Long Chiau Ming Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000