Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Clarivate Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (MyJurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in <strong>Scopus</strong> since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> en-US <p>Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (<a href=""></a>). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission</p> (Dr. Mohd Ikmal Asmuni) (Dr. Siti Nurfaeiza Abd Razak) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Uses of Rhizoctonia Mycorrhizae As a Dry Resistance Induction of Dendrobium aggregatum Seedlings <p>Orchids are cultivated by tissue culture because their seeds do not have food reserves (endosperm) for their growth. All nutrient requirements are obtained from tissue culture media. Propagation by tissue culture causes them to have no association with <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae, which are needed in their growth so that they can interfere with orchid growth both vegetatively and generatively. <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae are a group of <em>Rhizoctonia</em> sp. which form a mutual symbiotic association with orchids. Each orchid has a different association with <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae. At the time of association with orchids, <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae will form a peloton structure in the orchid root cortex, which supplies several nutrients needed by orchids from their environment during drought. <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae inoculation has been carried out on orchid seedlings of the same species orchids <em>in vitro</em>. However, <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae inoculation has never been carried out on seedlings of different species of orchid using a simpler spraying method. The success of simpler <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae inoculation on <em>Dendrobium aggregatum</em> seedlings might provide an understanding of the increased resistance of orchids to water stress. The materials used were isolates of <em>Rhizoctonia mycorrhizae</em> isolated from the roots of <em>Dendrobium lasiantera</em> and seedlings of <em>Dendrobium aggregatum</em> aged 6 months. The seedlings consisted of two groups. The former included seedlings exposed to <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae (M1) and watering with the intervals of 1, 2, and 3 days and those treated without <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae (M0) but with watering at the same intervals. The experiment used RCBD with 14 replications. Meanwhile, the control group was not exposed to both <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae and watering. The results showed that <em>Rhizoctonia</em> mycorrhizae inoculation had a significant effect on seedling height, leaf length, number of roots, and fresh weight of seedlings. Meanwhile, the watering interval did not give a real effect.</p> Raden Soelistijono, Angga Wulindra Jakti, Agus Budiyono, Endang Suprapti, Daryanti Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Live Weight Uniformity on The Day-Old Chick of Indonesian Local Chickens <p>The uniformity of live weight in the early stage (DOC) is an indicator applied to evaluate the quality of brooding, raising, and growth management. This study aims to compare the live weight uniformity of DOC in three local breeds as a parental group, namely Merawang A and B (n:196), Murung Panggang (n:157), and KUB (n:416), as well as in five groups of Bulaksumur (BS) for crossbred group, namely BS-1 (n:136), BS-2 (n:76), BS-3 (n:106), BS-5 (n:81), BS-6 (n:164). The live weight data of DOC was obtained in Gunungkidul Regency under similar management. The results show that the BS groups had higher live weight (31.9 g ± 3.1) compared to Merawang A (24 g ± 3.1), Murung Panggang (28.2 g ± 2.3), and KUB (28.1 g ± 2.8). Furthermore, the live weight uniformity on the BS DOC averaged 71% across all groups, with the highest uniformity being BS-3 (87%). Murung Panggang had a higher live weight uniformity (82%) compared to Merawang A and B (42%, 64%) and KUB (63%). The average coefficient variance was less than 10%, except for Merawang A and BS-2 with 13.09% and 11.35%, respectively. In conclusion, the DOC of the crossbred (BS) was more uniform than its parental groups. However, to distinguish the significantly different in the chicken live weight in early stage, further analysis needs to be conducted in the future.</p> Yesita Vera Saraswati, Fatmawati Mustofa, Aprilianna Putri Zahara Nafsina Luvita Sari, Heru Sasongko, Bambang Ariyadi, Dyah Maharani Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Water Quality Analysis and The Occurrence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) From Satow Waterfall in Bau, Malaysian Borneo <p>Water quality monitoring of a particular river is crucially important to determine if the river water meets the requirement for its designated uses. Therefore, an assessment of the physiochemical water quality at Satow Waterfall, Sarawak, and the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) was conducted to corroborate the safety of the water from the waterfall. A total of 42 water samples were collected at the subsurface water of the upstream, midstream, and downstream on two sampling trips in June 2021 (dry season) and December 2021 (wet season), with six months intervals. The water quality index (WQI) of the sampling stations ranged from 92.60 to 95, classifying the water under Class I. However, the water is microbiologically polluted, with the highest coliform count of 2.59 × 105 CFU/mL recorded at the middle stream during the wet season, which has surpassed the regulatory standard set by the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). A total of 54 bacterial isolates were chosen as representatives and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, which confirmed the existence of 21 bacterial genera. All identified isolates were tested against 15 antibiotics of various classes employing the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols. The antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) demonstrated substantial resistance to sulfamethoxazole (48%) and erythromycin (48%), as well as high susceptibility to chloramphenicol (84%), levofloxacin (60%) and ofloxacin (60%). The Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) evaluations demonstrated the MARI varied from 0-0.60, with 33% of the isolates having a MARI greater than 0.2. In this study, the occurrence of ARB in a water environment where there is an undisclosed source of antibiotic utilization is still inevitable, highlighting the necessity to constantly monitor the water quality and the pervasiveness of ARB in recreational water. </p> Khairunnisa Mohammad Hamdi, Samuel Lihan, Stanley Sait, Scholastica Ramih, Nur Azzah Osman, Nur Nazifah Mohamad, Tay Meng Guan, Fazia Mohamad Sinang, Hashimatul Fatma Hashim Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Enhanced Growth of Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) by Silicon Nutrient Application in Fertigation System <p>Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements naturally available in the soil. This element performs an essential function in improving plant growth. This present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Si nutrient application on the growth performance of chili (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> L.). Chili plant grown using a fertigation system was subjected to manual application of a silicon nutrient solution in varying concentrations (0 ppm, 108 ppm, 180 ppm, &amp; 360 ppm) via root application. Each treatment was replicated five times, with five plants in each replicate, and all plants were grown in a shade house. The growth performance parameters measured were the number of leaves, stem diameter, plant height, plant biomass (dry weight), and Si accumulation in the stem, leave, and chili fruit. Results showed that Si nutrient application significantly affected the growth performances of chili plants. Application of T3 (360 ppm Si nutrient) was able to produce the highest stem diameter (8.92 mm), fresh weight (129.63 g), dry weight (67.23 g), as well as Si accumulation in stem (54 ppm), and chili fruit (24 ppm). On the other hand, applications with T2 (180 ppm Si nutrient) also demonstrated the highest plant height (20.98 cm), number of leave (27), and Si accumulation in leave (87 ppm). In conclusion, the application of silicon nutrients has the potential to enhance plant growth in numerous crops, making it a beneficial supplement to traditional agricultural practices. </p> Suhaizan Lob, Nur Syakirah Sa'ad, Nurul Faziha Ibrahim, Norhidayah Che Soh, Ramisah Mohd Shah, Muhammad Safwan Hafiz Zaudin Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Symbiodiniaceae Density Pattern in Relation To Colony Morphology of Scleractinian Corals in Pulau Tioman and Pulau Bidong, Malaysia <p>A healthy coral reef is linked to the mutualistic relationship between scleractinian coral and the symbiotic Symbiodiniacea (SD). However, there is limited research on SD in Malaysia, despite its important role in reef-building coral. In this study, the SD density of scleractinian corals from the family Acroporidae was evaluated to (i) examine the pattern of SD density and (ii) comprehend the regulation of the SD density by the host. The mean SD density ranged between 0.46 ± 0.01 × 10<sup>6</sup> cell cm<sup>-2</sup> and 2.98 ± 1.17 × 10<sup>6</sup> cell cm<sup>-2</sup>. It is hypothetically proven that the SD density differed significantly between genera and morphological factors such as colony surface area (CSA) and dry weight coral tissue per unit colony surface area (DWCT/CSA) were significantly correlated with the SD density. The results show that the significant variation in SD density among coral genera can be influenced by coral growth forms and tissue biomass. There was a significant relationship between SD density and CSA as well as DWCT/CSA. Coral genera with a wider CSA and lower DWCT/CSA such as <em>Anacropora</em> and <em>Acropora</em> with branching, digitate and tabulate growth forms contained lower SD density than massive, laminar, and encrusting such as <em>Montipora</em> and <em>Astreopora</em> which hold more DWCT/CSA at lower CSA, resulting in higher SD density. The findings provide valuable information on SD density in different types of corals from the southern part of the South China Sea and reveal the coral host’s SD regulation.</p> Muhammad Arif Samshuri, Che Din Mohd Safuan, Nur Atiqah Maznan, Siti Nurtahirah Jaafar, Zainudin Bachok Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant Activity of Vitamin C and E Versus Oxidative Stress Induced by Heavy Metals in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) <p>The present study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant activity of vitamins C and E singly and together in modulating levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein, and glucose in different organs (gills, liver, &amp; muscles) and plasma of common carp exposed to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, &amp; Hg). The division of fish into two groups (control group and experimental group) was done after acclimatization. Seven days after exposure to heavy metals, the results showed a significant increase in the level of MDA in all organs of the experimental group (B) compared to those of the control group (A). Metal exposure caused a significant increase in the level of glucose in the liver and plasma (group B), while in muscles and gills, it caused a decrease in the amount of glucose (group B). Heavy metals have caused a slight decrease in total protein (gills, liver, &amp; muscles). Seven days after exposure, the fish were split into three groups: one group was fed with vitamin C, another group with vitamin E, and the third group was fed with both vitamins (C &amp; E). Results show that the addition of vitamins C and E as a food supplement resulted in the restitution of MDA and glucose values similar to those of the control group in all three investigated organs. But in terms of the amount of total protein, the results show that the addition of vitamins (C, E, &amp; C+E) could not restore these values. Otherwise, in most cases, these two vitamins (C &amp; E) administered together have shown more ameliorative effects than in the case of separate administration.</p> Hazbije Sahiti, Kemajl Bislimi, Agim Rexhepi, Zehra Kovaci, Enis Dalo Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bioactivity of Clitoria ternatea Crude Extracts Against Pathogenic Bacteria <p class="p1"><em>Clitoria ternatea, </em>sometimes referred to as the Asian pigeon wings blue pea, the butterfly pea, or the Darwin pea, is a Fabaceae plant species that has been shown to possess antibacterial effects against several pathogenic microbes. Hence, the present study has been carried out to access the antibacterial activity of <em>C. ternatea </em>flower extracted with water and methanol against pathogenic bacteria. The well and disk diffusion assays were performed to determine the antibacterial activity of <em>C. ternatea</em> flower extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was then evaluated via broth microdilution assay to obtain MIC and MBC values and the growth reduction assay. Meanwhile, the DPPH scavenging test was used to assess the antioxidant activity of the crude extracts. The results of the well and disc diffusion assays showed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to both extracts compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Meanwhile, the methanolic extract showed higher antibacterial activity on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria compared to the aqueous extract. The results of the MIC and MBC tests showed that the methanolic extract was bactericidal to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aqueous extract, however, demonstrated bacteriostatic activity against Gram-negative bacteria and bactericidal activity solely against Gram-positive bacteria. After a 24-h exposure period, a growth reduction assay showed that the methanolic extract could suppress both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by up to 99%. Meanwhile, the aqueous extract showed an inhibition percentage value ranging from 75% to 96% after an incubation period. The aqueous extract had the lowest antioxidant activity, with an EC<sub>50</sub> value of 87.78 µg/mL, whereas the methanolic extract had a fair amount of antioxidant activity when compared to the control (quercetin), according to the DPPH scavenging assay. The present study suggests that <em>C. ternatea</em> extracts as a potential antibacterial agent against pathogenic bacteria with significant antioxidant activity and this activity may be due to the presence of anthocyanin and its derivatives.</p> Liana Mohd Zulkamal, Nurul Afifah Ainna Zolhalim, Farizan Aris, Nurul Aili Zakaria, Farida Zuraina Mohd Yusof, Darah Ibrahim, Mohd Taufiq Mat Jalil Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 In Vitro Biological Activity of Three Marine Sponges From Theonella and Haliclona Genera Collected From Bidong Island, Terengganu, Malaysia <p>Marine sponges are primitive sessile animals that are rich sources of biologically active compounds. This paper aimed to assess the in-vitro biological activity of marine sponges from <em>Theonella</em> and <em>Haliclona</em> genera collected from Bidong Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Biological activities such as antibacterial (discs diffusion assay), antioxidant (DPPH free-radical scavenging assay), and cytotoxicity activity (against cancerous HeLa, MCF-7, HepG-2 cell lines and the normal cell line Vero) were evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay. The bioassays were done on methanol extracts at different concentrations. Results indicate that<em> T. swinhoei</em>, and <em>T</em>. cf <em>cupola</em> showed low antibacterial capabilities ranging from 0 to 50 mg/mL and exhibited medium antioxidant activity with the IC<sub>50</sub> value of 23.25 ± 1.57 and 18.52 ± 0.86 mg/mL, respectively. Cytotoxicity activities indicate that both species of <em>T. swinhoei</em> and <em>T</em>. cf <em>cupola</em> possesses toxic capabilities to inhibit the proliferation of all cancer cell lines used and demonstrated no significant toxicity for the normal cell line used in this study. <em>Haliclona fascigera</em> showed medium antibacterial activity against all Gram-positive bacteria and low activity against Gram-negative bacteria used. <em>Haliclona fascigera</em> exhibited antioxidant activity with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 1.80 ± 0.08 mg/mL and outcomes of the cytotoxicity activity assay against all cancer cells showed IC<sub>50</sub> below 30 µg/mL. Marine sponges evaluated in this study indicate promising bioactive compounds that can be an excellent candidate for drug discovery in prospecting novel antibiotics and anticancer. Despite showing low antibacterial and medium antioxidant activity, species from both <em>Theonella</em> can be further studied in other assays to explore other biological activities whilst marine sponge <em>H. fascigera</em> possesses excellent capabilities in antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities that can be further studied its chemical compositions for future research.</p> Nur Amira Jamaludin, Kamariah Bakar, Jasnizat Saidin Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 In Vivo Toxicity Study on The Effects of Aqueous Propolis Extract From Malaysian Stingless Bee (Geniotrigona thoracica) in Mice <p><em>Geniotrigona thoracica</em> is a stingless bee species of <em>Trigona</em> genus. Propolis resinous is a natural product obtained from a honeybees hive with geographical and floral specifications or exudate as such by-products resulting from a variety of botanical processes. Despite its long use for a variety of health conditions, the toxicity profile of propolis sourced from Malaysian stingless bees has not been sufficiently evaluated. For <em>in vivo</em> toxicity assessment, the acute oral toxicity on the effects of aqueous propolis extracts (APE) was examined. Male mice swiss strain, were subjected to acute toxicity testing for 14 days. The APE at doses of 400, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight was supplemented daily to the mice through oral gavage. The clinical signs of toxicity and general behaviour, body weight, relative organ weight, and histopathology changes were investigated. <em>In vivo</em> study was focused on the acute toxicity testing group consisting of 4 groups including Normal (NS), 400 mg/kg (APE 400), 1000 mg/kg (APE 1000) dan 2000 mg/kg (APE 2000). Regarding the toxicity profile, it is proposed that APE supplementation did not induce any mortality and no visible signs of toxicity. No significant changes in the body and relative organ weight were recorded. All the internal organs of the mice were macroscopically healthy with no gross lesion. Likewise, histopathological examinations of the kidney showed mild to moderate histological lesions. Interestingly, the lesion was adverse with an increased dosage of the extract supplementation. This study proposed APE has considerable anti-inflammatory activities. It also demonstrated that the propolis extract is relatively safe to be consumed orally at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight.</p> Nurul Alina Muhamad Suhaini, Mohd Feiz Pauzi, Siti Norazlina Juhari, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Noor Azlina Abu Bakar Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Properties of Purified Sago Frond Sugar Against Food-Borne Associated Disease Bacteria <p>Sago palm is recognised as key to sustainable food security due to its advantages resilient against extreme conditions such as wildfire and flood associated with adaptability to climate change. Sago palm is also known to remain solid after being attacked by pests and infected by the disease. Unfortunately, for the last ten years, the Sago palm industry experiences a significant decrease in plantation area and productivity. The long maturation period is identified to be the major factor that is responsible towards the respected issue. Thus, alternative commodities from the growing sago palm must be explored to offer a better perspective on the sago industry. Sago frond (SF) was utilised into Sago Frond Sugar (SFS) via enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase enzyme containing cellobiose and glucose as main sugar at 9-10 g/L and 5-6 g/L concentration respectively. SFS was purified (PSFS) using Powdered Activated Charcoal (PAC) to remove the impurities. Antibacterial analysis shows that PSFS able to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi at 23.5 mm, 22.5mm and 13.25 mm clearing zone respectively. However, the growth of <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> seems unaffected by the presence of PSFS. Promoting the versatility of sago frond as raw material to synthesise high-value products such as SFS will extend the potential of the sago palm to be recognised as an important crop to ensure global food security and safety.</p> Muhammad Norhelmi Ahmad, Nurazureen Matnin, Dayang Salwani Awang Adeni, Nurashikin Suhaili, Kopli Bujang Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 GC-MS Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Water Extracts of Malaysian Heterotrigona itama Propolis Against Selected Human Pathogenic Bacteria <p>Despite the growing interest in the therapeutic potential of propolis, limited attention has been paid to the chemical composition and biological activity of water extract propolis produced by Malaysian stingless bees. Thus, this study aimed to determine the phytochemical composition and antibacterial potential of ethanolic extract propolis (EEP) and water extract propolis (WEP) of the stingless bee species, <em>Heterotrigona itama</em> against ten pathogenic bacteria. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The antibacterial activity was determined using the disc-diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The GC-MS analysis of EEP exhibited four volatile compounds including hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, 2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-coumaranone, and diethyl bis(trimethylsilyl) ester silicic acid. However, only two compounds were identified in WEP, consisting of 2-(acetoxymethyl)-3-(methoxycarbonyl)biphenylene, and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane. EEP showed the highest antibacterial activity against all Gram-positive bacteria (<em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, <em>Enterococcus faecium</em>, <em>Micrococcus luteus</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Streptococcus mutans</em>) with values of the inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 10 mm. However, both extracts showed no antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, except WEP, which displayed an inhibition zone of 9.33 ± 1.53 mm against <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Meanwhile, EEP showed the lowest MIC and MBC values against <em>M. luteus</em> at 70 and 280 μg/mL, respectively. The results revealed the presence of several volatile compounds in the EEP of <em>H. itama</em> which could contribute to its antibacterial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria.</p> Rozaini Mohd Zohdi, Muhammad Amirul Adli, Hanis Fadzillah Mohsin, Shahida Muhamad Mokhtar, Anis Low Muhammad Low, Awang Hazmi Awang Junaidi, Dzu Hendra Ja Jahrudin Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 07 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical, Sensorial and Antioxidant Properties of Sardine Fish Patties Incorporated with Different Natural Additives <p>Sardine fish patty is a processed seafood product that easily spoiled because of oxidation. Oregano, cloves, cinnamon, turmeric, and green tea contain antioxidant properties that could preserve the fish patty. This study aimed to incorporate these ingredients into sardine fish patties and investigate their effects on the physicochemical properties, sensory evaluation, and lipid oxidation of the patties. The fresh sardine patties were treated with 0.5% of oregano (PWO), cloves (PWC), cinnamon (PWCI), turmeric (PWT) or green tea (PWGT) before being cooked, cooled and chill-stored for 12 days. No significant effects of the treatments were observed on moisture content, cooking yield, and shrinkage of the patties. The incorporation of turmeric significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) affected all colour parameters on the patties (PWT). Although PWGT showed slightly increased values in some texture profiling parameters, the PWGT also showed positive acceptability regarding sensory evaluation for most of the eating quality parameters. A significant (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) reduction in TBARS values in the patties incorporated with green tea (PWGT), while increased scavenging activity values of the PWGT and cloves (PWC) were observed. Thus, the study implied that green tea demonstrated a good effect on sardine fish patty, as compared to spices, which could be a potential natural preservative to preserve the fish product during storage.</p> Chi-Cheng Chong, Muhamad Faris Ab Aziz, Mohammad Rashedi Ismail-Fitry Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Inhibition of Chloroxylenol-Based Disinfectant Against Salmonella enterica serovar Thyphimurium Biofilm <p>The present work was performed to determine the impacts of commercial disinfectants against biomass, viability, and biochemical composition of <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serovar Thyphimurium ATCC14028 biofilm. <em>Salmonella</em> Thyphimurium biofilm grown in microplates was exposed to commercial disinfectants namely sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, chloroxylenol, and sodium dodecyl-benzene sulfonate-based disinfectants. Biofilm biomass, biofilm viability, and biochemical composition of the biofilm were determined using crystal violet assay, resazurin assay and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy respectively. Results demonstrated that, among four commercial disinfectants, chloroxylenol-based disinfectant showed the highest inhibition against <em>S</em>. Thyphimurium biofilm. It remarkably hindered biofilm biomass and biofilm viability at all tested concentrations (0.78%-25%). Half-maximal biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC<sub>50</sub>) of chloroxylenol-based disinfectant (5.06%) was found to be the lowest among the tested disinfectants. Meanwhile, <em>S</em>. Thyphimurium biofilm treated with chloroxylenol-based disinfectant exhibited changes in FTIR spectral peaks associated with lipid (1460 cm<sup>-1</sup>), protein (630 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 702 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1550 cm<sup>-1</sup> &amp; 1650 cm<sup>-1</sup>), and nucleic acid (1080 cm<sup>-1</sup> &amp; 1229 cm<sup>-1</sup>). The findings of the present study suggest that the inhibition of chloroxylenol-based disinfectant against <em>S</em>. Thyphimurium biofilm is mediated by structural changes of biofilm. </p> Nur Anisah Johari, Mohd Shafiq Aazmi, Mohd Fakharul Zaman Raja Yahya Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Development of A Plant-Based Meat Product Supplemented With Red Amaranth Antioxidants For The Elderly <p>This study was aimed at developing a protein-rich food formulation for the elderly using ingredients derived from soybean, sacha inchi, wheat flour, quinoa, and perilla seed. First, the protein content of all ingredients was analyzed. The results showed that the highest protein level (48.54%) was seen in sacha inchi. Then, sensory test by elderly adults was evaluated. The formulation which had the highest sensory acceptance comprised 33% soybean, 40% sacha inchi, 20% wheat flour, 5% quinoa, and 2% perilla seed. The effect of stabilizers (xanthan gum and sodium alginate) at levels of 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively, was studied. It was found that 0.1% sodium alginate produced the highest sensory score. Measurements of the texture and water absorption of the formulation showed that the values for hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, adhesiveness, chewiness and gumminess were 1003, 0.25, 0.45, 0.17, 110, and 222, respectively, while water absorption was 51.10%. An aqueous extract of <em>Amaranthus dubius</em> was subjected to analysis of levels of polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract had polyphenol, anthocyanin, DPPH radical-scavenging and FRAP levels of 41.13 µg GAE/mL, 458 mg/L, 62.7%, and 14.8 µg Trolox/mL, respectively. At a concentration of 2000 µg/mL, the crude extract exerted 22% average anti-proliferative effect on P388, KB, Hela and HepG2 cells. Different extract levels were added to the product, and the acceptability of the concentrated extract was re-evaluated. The results showed that the concentrated extract at 0.5% level of incorporation had the highest acceptance rating as a meat analogue. The energy per 100 g of the plant meat sample was 247.95 kcal, while its contents of protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, and dietary fibre were 24.71, 6.27, 23.17, 2.52 and 6.76%, respectively. Thus, the plant meat product supplemented with A. dubius extract could be an alternative and safe diet for the elderly.</p> Pornhathai Putthawan, Surachai Chaiso Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ultra-Processed Food Consumption About Body Mass Index (BMI) of Public University Students in Malaysia <p>The Malaysian Nutrition Research Priorities for the 12th Plan (2021-2025) has identified a critical need for research on the consumption of ultra-processed foods among public university students in Malaysia. Despite this need, there is a lack of empirical research on the relationship between ultra-processed food intake and body mass index (BMI) in this population. To address this gap, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and BMI in public university students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study design was employed, involving 250 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of three parts: a socio-demographic profile, anthropometric measurement, and a 24-hr dietary record. Food and beverage consumption was classified using the NOVA food categorization system (composed of Group 1: Unprocessed or minimally processed foods, Group 2: Processed culinary ingredients, Group 3: Processed foods, and Group 4: Ultra-processed foods), and energy intake was calculated using the Nutritionist Pro software and food guidance books. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. The results showed that the average daily caloric intake was 1821.74 ± 439.03 kcal, with 31% of the total intake being contributed by ultra-processed foods (Group 4). The average energy intake from Group 1 and 2 was 1225.95 ± 414.90 kcal, Group 3 was 33.52 ± 73.83 kcal and Group 4 was 562.27 ± 344.71 kcal. The average BMI was 23.10 (7.38) kg/m2, which falls within the normal category. The analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between ultra-processed food consumption and BMI (<em>r<sub>s</sub></em>=0.16, <em>n</em>=250, <em>p</em>=0.014). This study provides valuable insights into ultra-processed food consumption patterns among Malaysian university students using the NOVA classification system and highlights the importance of reducing such consumption to prevent nutritionally related diseases among public university students in the country.</p> Girijah Ganesrau, Asma' Ali, Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed, Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Hayati Mohd Yusof, Sim Why Jean Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Methanolic Extract Of Swietenia macrophylla Exhibits Antibacterial And Antibiofilm Efficacy Against Gram-Positive Pathogens <p>Gram-positive pathogens cause infections such as pneumonia, skin infections, anthrax, and sinusitis. The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile, antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of <em>Swietenia macrophylla</em> methanolic extract (SMME) against Gram-positive pathogens. The secondary metabolites of SMME were analyzed using GC-MS while the antibacterial efficacy of SMME against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 33862, <em>Bacillus cereus</em> ATCC 11778, <em>Streptococcus pneumonia</em> ATCC 19615, and <em>Clostridium sporogenes</em> ATCC 13124 was assessed using MIC and MBC assays. Biofilm biomass assay and time-kill assay were performed to determine the antibiofilm activity of SMME against the pathogens. Results demonstrated that six common antibacterial secondary metabolites were present in the SMME. The major compound was found to be β-amyrin (22.8%). The SMME showed the lowest MIC values against <em>B. cereus</em> (31.25 µg/mL) and <em>C. sporogenes</em> (31.25 µg/mL) and the lowest MBC value against <em>S. aureus</em> (1000 µg/mL). The SMME also significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) inhibited all the biofilms. It started to inhibit <em>S. pneumonia</em> and <em>C. sporogenes</em> biofilms after 12 h of exposure. On the other hand, the BIC<sub>50</sub> value showed that the SMME was most effective against <em>B. cereus</em>. In conclusion, the secondary metabolites in the SMME may contribute to the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy against Gram-positive pathogens.</p> Siti Sarah Diyana Amran, Mohd Taufiq Mat Jalil, Aziyah Abdul Aziz, Mohd Fakharul Zaman Raja Yahya Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Variations of Malaysian And Golden Thai Strains of Climbing Perch and Their Hybrids Based On The Partial Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene <p>Rapid genetic improvements from selective breeding are anticipated in many aquaculture species and mitogenome is used to complement the morphological taxonomy of hybrids to evaluate its genetic structures. A study of the genetic variations within the two strains (Malaysian strain and Golden Thai strain) of <em>Anabas testudineus</em> (Bloch, 1792) and their hybrids, phylogenetic trees based on cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) of the partial mitochondrial DNA gene were constructed using Maximum Likelihood and Neighbor Joining approaches. The findings support the monophyletic status of the genus with only one haplogroup from which other haplotypes were descended and of a single common ancestor. The individual fishes’ phylogenetic relationships revealed two major clades and <em>Saurida undosquamis</em> as an outgroup. All the groups had high haplotype diversity, except for the hybrid Malaysian strain × golden Thai strain (0.1540±0.126). This suggests that different fish species in each of these studies had different nucleotide compositions in their mitochondrial genomes. The highest number of haplotypes and the presence of distinct haplotypes in the Golden Thai strain × Malaysian strain hybrid point to the absence of recent or regular gene flow as well as high genetic diversity within the hybrids. This study demonstrated that the mtDNA diversity of <em>Anabas testudineus</em> from Malaysia and Thailand had been preserved. Studies on the population genetic diversity and molecular evolution of anabas fish species can benefit from the data provided by this work.</p> Awawu Dasuki, Yuzine Esa, Annie Christianus, Mohammed Fadhil Syukri Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000