Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) - Web of Science, Elsevier, Mycite (MyJurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> en-US <p>Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (<a href=""></a>). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission</p> (Dr. Mohd Ikmal Asmuni) (Dr. Siti Nurfaeiza Abd Razak) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 01:50:20 +0000 OJS 60 A Review of The Potential Applications of Propolis in The Malaysian Poultry Industry <p class="p1">Antibiotics are used in the poultry industry as feed additives to improve growth, prevent disease, treat sick animals, stabilize intestinal microflora, and improve growth performance. Due to the risks regarding long-term antibiotic resistance development of pathogenic bacteria in humans, the utilization of synthetic antimicrobials in livestock feed has been banned in most animal production practices. However, antibiotic prohibition in livestock can result in poor performance of the animals in terms of yield of production, quality, and health status. Therefore, it is important to find natural alternatives such as propolis to substitute for antibiotic usage in livestock feed. Propolis is a natural resin produced by honeybees. There are over 300 beneficial compounds found in propolis. It contains various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and others which contribute to its antimicrobial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties. Various studies have been carried out to determine the biological and chemical activities of propolis as well as its function as an alternative natural feed additive. Thus, this review focuses on propolis composition, the potential of stingless bee propolis in Borneo, its potential as an antioxidant with antimicrobial properties, and the potential of propolis as a natural feed additive for poultry.</p> Louisiana Lulu Lukas, Nurfazila Latif, Mohammad Nasir Hassan, Kamil Latif, Lirong Yu Abit, Suhaili Mustafa, Mohammad Hakim Mohammad Ali Hanafiah, Paul Bura Thlama, Herinda Pertiwi, Sarah Al-Twain, Juriah Kamaludeen Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Interaction of Immune System in Tumour Microenvironment and Possible Role of Cancer Cell Immnunosensitization for Better Treatment Efficacy: A Review <p class="p1">Unlike haematologic malignant cells which express cell surface common antigens uniformly and are susceptible to targeted cancer immunotherapy, solid tumours either lack such antigens or have been mutated due to chemotherapy or other therapeutic interventions. Moreover, rapidly dividing tumour cells present complex and dynamic tumour metabolism, which hampers immune cells' reactivity against the tumour cells. Hence solid tumours other than immune-sensitive cancers such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma are less responsive towards current cellular immunotherapy strategies, including cytokine therapy, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and immune-activating antibodies. Nonetheless, emerging evidence supports combined approaches that target immunosuppressive or antiapoptotic molecules, involving sensitization of the cancer cells by immunosensitizing drugs to express specific ligands that will be recognized by the immune cells via trafficking. This review highlights the immune system's involvement in the tumour microenvironment and the potential significance of cancer cell immunosensitization for improved treatment outcomes.</p> Farhana Khamarudin, Mudiana Muhamad, Jesmine Khan, Mohammad Johari Ibahim, Wan Nor 'Izzah Wan Mohamad Zain, Mardiana Abdul Aziz, Nurul Raudzah Adib Ridzuan, Sharaniza Ab Rahim Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring The Potential of Microalgae-Fungi Co-Cultivation for Sustainable Bioprocessing in Microalgae Biorefinery <p class="p1">Developing co-cultivation systems involving microalgae and fungi has shown promising potential for microalgae harvesting technology. As discussed in this review, the co-cultivation of microalgae and fungi has emerged as a novel approach for enhancing biomass and lipid production, wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and high-value products. However, despite being used for a few years, this technique is still in its early stages of development and has yet to be widely applied in the industry. The main challenges associated with co-cultivation include designing effective cultivation systems, managing nutrient requirements, selecting compatible strains, and implementing contamination control measures. In this study, bibliometric analysis was conducted (using the Web of Science database) to examine global trends and developments in microalgae-fungi co-cultivation research between 2014 and 2023, which aimed to identify the research progression, prominent contributors, and leading countries in the research field. The dataset comprised 682 articles, 242 reviews, 31 book chapters, and 22 conference papers. The results showed a rapid increment of publications with China as an active nation in this research area, followed by India, the USA, Italy, Spain, etc. As demonstrated in this study, the immense potential of co-cultivation techniques suggests further exploration, particularly in employing different microalgae species with exceptional characteristics in conjunction with non-pathogenic and edible fungi for profitable industrialization.</p> Muhammad Hizbullahi Usman, Mohd Farizal Kamaroddin, Mohd Helmi Sani, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik Malek Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Toxicity Assessment on Odonata Larvae Survivability in Monitoring Heavy Metal Contaminations <p class="p1">The aquatic ecosystem has been suffering a continuous increase of metal contamination such as Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), and Manganese (Mn) due to their inadequate high potential to disturb the aquatic organism population. Meanwhile, some insects such as<em> Pseudagrion microcephalum</em> and <em>Ischnura senegalensis</em> can be used as biological indicators to determine stream health. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the heavy metal concentration and its effect on the survivability of two different species of damselfly larvae from the family Coenagrionidae; <em>Pseudagrion microcephalum</em> and <em>Ischnura senegalensis</em>. In this study, there is a significant effect of three heavy metal exposures on the survivability of <em>P.microcephalum</em> (F<sub>11,180</sub>=14.50, <em>P</em>=0.00) and <em>I.senegalensis</em> (F<sub>11,180 </sub>=15.10, <em>P</em>=0.00). <em>Pseudagrion microcephalum</em> is more tolerable towards Mn (F<sub>3,60</sub>=13.19, <em>P</em>=0.00) and Zn (F<sub>3,60</sub>=16.07, <em>P</em>=0.00) at different concentrations compared to <em>I.senegalensis. </em>In the meantime, <em>I.senegalensis</em> was tolerable to Cd exposure. The LC<sub>50</sub> value of Cd was much lower than other heavy metals. Besides, the LT<sub>50</sub> value of Cd at 200 mg/L was the lowest on <em>P. microcephalum</em> (31 hr) and <em>I. senegalensis</em> (36 hr) compared to other heavy metals. Cd was the most toxic to <em>P.microcephalum</em> and <em>I.senegalensis</em> larvae followed by zinc and manganese (LC<sub>50</sub> &amp; LT<sub>50</sub>=Cd &gt; Zn &gt; Mn). It is concluded that<em> I.senegalensis </em>was tolerant towards Cd, Mn, and Zn compared to <em>P.microcephalum</em> and Cd had the fastest-acting toxicity and significantly reduced the lethal time of mortality on both species.</p> Suhaila Ab Hamid, Ahmad Hadri Jumaat Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Teratogenic Potential of Exogenously Applied Over-The-Counter L-Glutathione Supplement on Ethanol-Induced Teratogenesis in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) <p class="p1">Glutathione is the body’s most abundant endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidant and is used as a substrate for free radical scavenging in the body, especially during ethanol metabolism. This study aims to shift the paradigm of using glutathione as a whitening agent into a potent antioxidant for therapy, particularly for ethanol-induced teratogenesis in the Philippines. Zebrafish embryos were treated with glutathione at various time points of ethanol exposure and concentration. Pre-treatments, co-treatments, and post-treatments with 100 μM glutathione solution were done to assess the most appropriate time point for glutathione intake upon exposure of the embryo to ethanol. Eye diameter and otic vesicle diameter were chosen as morphological parameters because dysmorphogenesis of these organs resembles mammalian fetal alcohol syndrome disorders. For eye diameter, alleviation of microphthalmia by glutathione was seen in pre-treatment (1% ethanol only) and post-treatment (1% &amp; 1.5%) while co-treatment did not exhibit rescue for eye diameter reduction. For otic vesicle diameter, pre- and co-treatment with glutathione did not exhibit any changes in size but post-treatment showed abnormal enlargement suggesting possible teratogenic effect across all ethanol concentrations. The 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-hydrazine (DPPH) assay was used as a confirmatory test for the free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of treated tissues. Pre-treatment with GSH at 1% ethanol showed the highest FRSA while post-treatment showed FRSA insignificantly different to controls. This study suggests that glutathione can alleviate oxidative stress in embryo development which may lead to dysmorphogenesis and that supplementation before and after ethanol exposure may be a viable form of therapy for ethanol-induced teratogenesis.</p> Jordan Ferdin Halili, Jose Miguel Daya, John Vincent Navalan, Lerrie Anne Ipulan-Colet Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Different Solvent Extracts of Leaves and Stem of Alyxia reinwardtii Blume <p class="p1"><em>Alyxia reinwardtii </em>Blume (Pulasari) Apocynaceae is being widely used as a traditional medicine in treating various illnesses due to its phenolic, coumarins, lignans, iridoid glycosides alkaloids and flavonoids content. These compounds in <em>A</em>. <em>reinwardtii</em> were reported to be useful as medicinal and agricultural potentials. Hence, <em>A</em>.<em> reinwardtii </em>meets the rationale for antioxidant and antibacterial studies to replace synthetic substances using different solvents on the leaves and stem of <em>A</em>. <em>reinwardtii </em>using cold maceration. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The total flavonoid content was determined using aluminum chloride. The antioxidant capacity of the samples was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. Disc Diffusion Assay (DDA), Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Bacillus cereus</em> growth. Methanol was determined as the most effective solvent due to the highest crude yield obtained, (19.47 ± 2.80 %). Acetone showed the highest TPC content (170.44 ± 10.99 mg GAE/g) while hexane showed the highest TFC content (2957 ± 91.24 mg QE/g). Moreover, for DPPH, methanol inhibited the highest antioxidant (75.81 ± 12.62 %) and hexane for FRAP assay (2278.89 ± 69.47 mg AAE/g). Hexane extract is potentially effective with variable efficiency with DDA (11.17 ± 4.48 mm) while methanol extracts with MIC (0.63 μg/mL) and MBC (2.50 μg/mL) against <em>E</em>. <em>coli</em>. The results indicated that methanolic and hexane extract using cold maceration showed optimum antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The present study advocates that <em>A</em>.<em> reinwardtii</em> was a source of substantial antioxidant and antibacterial agents for potential pharmaceutical applications.</p> Vanishri Kaly Sitthan, Muhamad Salihu Abdallah, Meenakshii Nallappan, Sang-Ho Choi, Jin-Hyub Paik, Rusea Go Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Profiles and Mosquito-Repellent Properties of Indigenous Plants from Pak Panang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand <p class="p1">This study investigated the mosquito-repelling ability of folkloric indigenous plants by phytochemical extraction using three distinct methods. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using thin-layer chromatography. The average powder weights of <em>Citrus maxima</em> (CM), <em>Eleocharisdulcis plantaginea</em> (EP), and <em>Thespesia populnea</em> (TP) were 154.33, 156.67, and 153.78 mg/g dry weight, respectively, and are substantially different from the other ten species (<em>p</em>=0.05). However, this technique did not affect the extract yield. The region of interest (ROI) values for the antioxidant activity of these three species were 328.9, 924.0, and 735.0, respectively. The repellent activities of the CM, TP, and EP extracts were significantly lower than those of DEET; however, the repellent activities of the mixed extract did not differ (<em>p</em>=0.05). This study found that indigenous plants commonly used in the region have mosquito-repellant and antioxidant properties. Combining the three extracts would yield the same activity as DEET, an ingredient used in commercial mosquito repellents.</p> Siriluk Sintupachee, Suppawan Promprao Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Proximate Nutritional Analysis, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Extract of Neptunia oleracea Leaves <p class="p1"><em>Neptunia oleracea </em>also known as water mimosa is widely consumed by people worldwide including Malaysia. This plant was claimed able to treat several diseases such as epileptic convulsion, syphilis, jaundice, and bloody diarrhea. Moreover, it has been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-ulcer properties that benefit human health. Hence, this study investigates the content of macronutrients, micronutrients, phytochemical constituents, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties in the aqueous leaf extract of this plant. The study found that <em>N. oleracea</em> leaves were possessed with high fiber (52%), moisture (23.33%), fat (5.33%), protein (5.25%), carbohydrate (6.42%), ash (7.67%), and mineral content with a sequence of Potassium &gt; Calcium &gt; Sodium &gt; Phosphorus. A positive result of tannins, steroids, phenols, and flavonoids were detected. High values of TPC and TFC which were 136.19 ± 0.62 mg GAE/g and 829.17 ± 19.09 mg GAE/g of dry weight respectively were obtained. Meanwhile, the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of the plant extract produced an IC50 of 70.09 µg/mL. The presence of a high content of polyphenolic compounds may reflect the antioxidant properties of this plant. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of <em>N. olerace</em>a leaves showed the presence of various phytochemical constituents and has a high content of TPC and TFC which may be derived from its nutritional content.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Hence, consumption of <em>N. olerace</em>a leaves is useful for human health and disease prevention.</p> Siti Syafinaz Kamaruzzaman, Che Ku Afina Haida Che Ku Mazuan, Shamima Abdul Rahman, Imtiaz Khalid Mohamed, Zolkapli Eshak, Mahani Mahadi Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cardinal Temperatures and Thermal Time for Germination of Sarawak Traditional Rice <p class="p1">Germination of two rice landraces, namely Bario Sederhana and Biris, was determined from twelve temperatures (12.5 – 40 ºC) in a series of incubation experiments. The cardinal temperatures and thermal time for germination were estimated from a ‘broken-stick’ linear model. Both landraces had a T<sub>b</sub> of 10 ºC, T<sub>opt </sub>between 32 – 33 ºC, and T<sub>max</sub> of 43 ºC. At the sub-optimal temperatures, the thermal time for germination was 62 ºCd for Bario Sederhana and 53 ºCd for Biris. Within the supra-optimal range (T<sub>opt</sub> to T<sub>max</sub>), both landraces required 27-29 ºCd for seed germination. The maximum final germination for Bario Sederhana was 93% at 30 ºC while Biris had 100% seeds population germinated at 27.5 ºC.</p> Franalyne Lyenang Luing, Hollena Nori Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reproductive Development and Yield Components of Bario Sederhana Rice in Response to Photoperiod <p class="p1">A series of controlled environment treatments were conducted to quantify reproductive development and yield components of Bario Sederhana rice grown under five photoperiod regimes (8, 9, 10, 11, &amp; 12 h). A ‘broken-stick’ linear regression of heading rate against photoperiod was used to determine the cardinal photoperiods for heading.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>The reproductive development towards photoperiod showed a delayed pattern in time to heading, anthesis, and maturity under lengthening photoperiod from 10 to 12 h.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>For example, under 10 h photoperiod the crops required 1680 °Cd (70.8 days) from emergence to heading but took an extended duration of 3147 °Cd (132.6 days) when they were sown at 12 h photoperiod. The prolonged time taken for reproductive development modified by photoperiod resulted in higher yield components. This is because the lengthening time from heading to maturity extended the duration of grain filling. The longest photoperiod of 12 h gave the highest percentage of filled spikelets (65.3%) thus consequently leading to the heaviest grain weight of 1.4 g per panicle. The base, optimum, and maximum photoperiod for heading were estimated to be 7.4 h, 10 h, and 14.8 h, respectively.</p> Putri Ainaa Afiqah Hossen, Hollena Nori Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Thermal inactivation D- and z-values of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in whole-muscle beef <p class="p1"><em>Salmonella</em> spp. is a significant foodborne pathogen present in raw meat products and in the processing environment. It can be eliminated by thermal processes such as cooking. Time and temperature in the thermal process play an important role in eliminating this pathogen. The objective of this study is to determine the D- and z-values of <em>Salmonella </em>spp. in whole-muscle beef using the isothermal inactivation method in four temperatures at designated time intervals. Whole-muscle beef was inoculated with 7 to 8 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/mL of <em>Salmonella</em> Typhimurium and <em>Salmonella </em>Enteritidis. The inoculated meat samples were heat treated at 58 <span class="s1">°</span>C, 60 <span class="s1">°</span>C, 62 <span class="s1">°</span>C, and 64 <span class="s1">°</span>C. At each temperature, <em>Salmonella </em>spp. survival rate was plotted and the D- and z-values were obtained by linear regression of the survival curve. The D-values for the thermal inactivation of whole-muscle beef are D<sub>58 </sub><span class="s1"><sub>°</sub></span><sub>C</sub>=5.41 min, D<sub>60 </sub><span class="s1"><sub>°</sub></span><sub>C</sub>=2.03 min, D<sub>62 </sub><span class="s1"><sub>°</sub></span><sub>C</sub>=0.46 min, and D<sub>64 </sub><span class="s1"><sub>°</sub></span><sub>C</sub>=0.18 min, while the z-value obtained was 3.94 <span class="s1">°</span>C. These findings will assist food processors in designing the critical limits on the critical control points of the cooking process that ensure safety against <em>Salmonella</em> spp. in cooked whole-muscle beef.</p> Abd Lataf Dora-Liyana, Nor Ainy Mahyudin, Mohammad Rashedi Ismail-Fitry, Mohd Dzomir Ahmad Zainuri Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional Composition and Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Cocoa Pod Husk using Response Surface Methodology <p class="p1">Cocoa pod husks (CPH) are usually disposed of from the farm, and this can lead to environmental problems, such as being a breeding ground for the cocoa pod borer. This study aimed to determine the nutritional composition and concentration of ultra-trace elements (As, Cd, Pb &amp; Hg) in CPH. The optimization of the extraction conditions of CPH in response to the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) by using response surface methodology (RSM) was also conducted. The findings show that the total carbohydrate and crude fibre content of CPH are high (35.75% &amp; 35.47%, respectively) while having low levels of moisture, ash, crude protein, and fat (11.86%. 8.60%, 7.46% &amp; 0.86, respectively). In addition, the results demonstrate that CPH has a low content of toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, and Hg (0.0046 mg/kg, 0.0028 mg/kg, 0.0011 mg/kg &amp; 0.00003 mg/kg respectively) which is considered as a safe range. The optimized extraction conditions were a solvent concentration of 93.64%, a temperature of 38.18°C, and a time of 73.64 min. The actual value of the flavonoid content of CPH obtained was 1038.94 µmoL Fe<sup>2+/</sup>L, which is acceptable compared to the predicted value of 1039.40 µmoL Fe<sup>2+/</sup>L. The discovery from this research represents a significant contribution towards finding cocoa pod husk from a plentiful, affordable, and feasible source, which could potentially be used in various fields such as pharmaceutical, medical, and nutraceuticals.</p> Nurulain Hasya Azhar, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan, Suhaili Shamsi, Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Arief Huzaimi Md Yusof Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Keberkesanan Ekstrak Akua Kaliks Hibiscus sabdariffa Sebagai Agen Anti-Obesiti dan Peningkat parameter Kesuburan Tikus Jantan Aruhan Obesiti <p class="p1">Obesiti meningkatkan risiko gangguan proses spermatogenesis yang boleh mengakibatkan penurunan kesuburan lelaki. <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> merupakan tumbuhan yang mampu mengurangkan jumlah lipid dalam darah haiwan. Penggunaan ekstrak akua kaliks <em>H. sabdariffa</em> sebagai peningkat parameter kesuburan lelaki masih kurang jelas. Oleh itu, kajian ini menggunakan tikus jantan aruhan obesiti sebagai model haiwan bagi mengenal pasti kesan ekstrak akua kaliks <em>H. sabdariffa </em>dalam memulihkan masalah kesuburan jantan di samping bertindak sebagai agen anti-obesiti. Sebanyak 36 ekor tikus jantan Sprague Dawley dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan utama iaitu kumpulan kawalan dan kumpulan rawatan yang setiapnya terdiri daripada enam ekor tikus.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Kumpulan kawalan terdiri daripada kumpulan normal, negatif (tikus teraruh obesiti tanpa rawatan) dan positif (tikus teraruh obesiti yang diberi 10 mg/kg berat tubuh orlistat).<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Kumpulan rawatan ekstrak akua kaliks <em>H. sabdariffa</em> pula dibahagi kepada tiga iaitu Hs100 (100 mg/kg berat tubuh), Hs200 (200 mg/kg berat tubuh) dan Hs300 (300 mg/kg berat tubuh) selama 14 hari tempoh rawatan. Semua tikus kajian kecuali kumpulan normal diaruh obesiti dengan diberi diet tinggi lemak (HFD) sehingga mencapai nilai indeks Lee melebihi 310. Tikus kumpulan rawatan Hs100, Hs200 dan Hs300 yang diberi ekstrak akua kaliks <em>H. sabdariffa</em> mengikut dos masing-masing menunjukkan penurunan berat badan yang signifikan (p&lt;0.05) berbanding kumpulan negatif. Analisis kuantiti sperma dalam kumpulan rawatan Hs100 menunjukkan peningkatan secara signifikan (p&lt;0.05) berbanding kumpulan normal dan negatif.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Analisis histologi testis juga menunjukkan ekstrak akua kaliks <em>H. sabdariffa</em> pada kumpulan rawatan membantu memperbaiki struktur tubul seminiferus dengan kepadatan spermatozoa yang tinggi pada lumen serta peningkatan berat testis dan diameter tubul seminiferus berbanding kumpulan kawalan normal dan kawalan negatif.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Kesimpulannya, rawatan ekstrak akua kaliks <em>H. sabdariffa</em> iaitu Hs100 merupakan dos optimum yang mampu meningkatkan parameter kesuburan berbanding kumpulan rawatan normal dan kawalan negatif, serta mempunyai kesan anti-obesiti pada tikus jantan teraruh obesiti.</p> Mahanem Mat Noor, Nur Filzah Athirah Mohamad Zin, Nadia Aqilla Shamsusah Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000