Malaysian Applied Biology <p>Since 1977, the Malaysian Society of Applied Biology has been publishing a journal entitled MALAYSIAN APPLIED BIOLOGY twice yearly. This journal was previously known as MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH from 1973 to 1976.</p> <p>The editorial board accepts and publishes scientific articles in all fields of biology and applied biology or related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication elsewhere in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, original data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board. The Journal also publishes review papers and short communication.<br /><br />Malaysian Applied Biology is listed and indexed in Clarivate Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite (MyJurnal), Biosis, Zoological Records, EBSCO, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI. Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in <strong>Scopus</strong> since issue 41(1) 2012.</p> <p>Malaysian Applied Biology is an open access journal. All articles since December 2005 are freely available in the Archive at <a href=""></a>.</p> en-US <p>Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (<a href=""></a>). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission</p> (Dr. Mohd Ikmal Asmuni) (Dr. Siti Nurfaeiza Abd Razak) Fri, 05 May 2023 13:03:08 +0000 OJS 60 A Review of Malaysian Medicinal Plants with Potential Anticancer Activity <p>The global cancer incidence and its high mortality rate indicate limitations in its current treatment and chemotherapeutic strategies. This sparked a worldwide interest in the demand for chemical diversity in searching for therapeutic drugs derived from natural products. Natural products from medicinal plants, whether as pure compounds or crude extracts, offer inexhaustible sources of new drugs because of their unparalleled chemical diversity. This review aims to disseminate detailed information on the anticancer potential of Malaysian medicinal plants, focusing on the bioactive phytochemicals and mechanisms of action against cancer development in both in vitro and in vivo studies. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases was conducted to find relevant articles on the anticancer activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. A total of hundred and twenty-two (122) articles on the anticancer activity of Malaysian medicinal plants was identified and reviewed. Eighty-five (85) plants (in vitro) and 16 plants (in vivo) have been identified to possess anticancer activity. The activity reported was attributed primarily to diverse chemical groups of naturally occurring phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, quercetin, and gallic acid. Henceforth, the findings will hope to aid further research in understanding the underlaying mechanism and the efficiency of the isolation of the bioactive compounds. </p> Muhammad Ashraf Aiman Mat Jusoh, Farizan Aris, Mohd Taufiq Mohd Jalil, Khairunnisa Ahmad Kamil, Nurul Aili Zakaria Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Variability of Wild Populations of Invasive Redclaw Crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) von Martens 1868 Across Peninsular Malaysia <p>The redclaw crayfish had been listed as an invasive species in Malaysia following the various negative impacts displayed on both environment and economy. The species are largely culture in Malaysia for food, but unluckily escaped and expands to several waterbodies across the country. For effective control management of redclaw crayfish species, a total of 52 wild samples were collected from six locations in Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed using a 16S mitochondrial DNA to assess their genetic diversity and introduction history. Five haplotypes were detected associated with an overall low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.385, π = 0.00133). A single genetic structure was detected with a phylogenetic relationship showing two clusters related to the haplotypes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The finding of this study provides the basic data that will aid the appropriate Malaysian authorities for both monitoring and management strategies of redclaw crayfish in Peninsular Malaysia.</p> Mohamad Zulkarnain Mohd Dali, Muhammad Syafiq Aiman Mohd Nasir, Aliyu Garba Khaleel, Nor Ainsyafikah Madiran, Norshida Ismail, Ahmad Syazni Kamarudin Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Low Heating Effects on The Total Microbial Activity and Physico-Chemical Properties of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) Honey <p class="MABAbstractText">The high moisture content of stingless bee honey (SBH) is a worrisome problem and heat treatment is used to reduce the moisture and maintain the honey’s quality by destroying the microorganisms that affect the physico-chemical properties of honey during storage. Low heat treatment (45 °C) for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min were conducted to determine the total microbial activity using fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA). The total microbial population that subsequently affected the physico-chemical properties was also analyzed. The total microbial activities of SBH were significantly reduced after thermal treatment at 45 °C for 90 min (63.76 µg FDA/g/h) and 120 min (62.43 µg FDA/g/h) compared with control (67.127 µg FDA/g/h). Also, the moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and free acidity of the heat-treated SBH at all durations were significantly reduced compared with the control. The total microbial activity was detected as significantly correlated to bacterial and fungal populations, moisture content, EC, pH, and free acidity of low heat-treated SBH. Low heat treatment at 45 °C for 120 min was efficient to reduce the total microbial activity, and total acidity, and increasing the pH of SBH. Prolonging the heating duration is suggested to further reduce the water content, and total microbial activity and further increase the shelf life of SBH.</p> Lee Chuen Ng, Shamsul Bahri Abd Razak, Rudiyanto, Say Peng Tan, Fauziah Tufail Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Genome-Wide Identification of β-1,3-Glucanase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis <p>β-1,3-glucanase is one of the pathogenesis-related proteins well-known for their antifungal properties which can be abundantly found in <em>Hevea brasiliensis</em>. Utilization of β-1,3-glucanase in the genetic improvement of <em>H</em>. <em>brasiliensis</em> is very important as the high susceptibility to various fungal infections has challenged the current natural rubber industry. A few nucleotide sequences for β-1,3-glucanase have been reported and their role in biotic stress management has been demonstrated. Being a multigene family, it is necessary to identify and characterize more isoforms of β-1,3-glucanase to select the most suitable isoform to be utilized in genetic improvement. In the current study, we conducted a genome-wide identification of β-1,3-glucanases in <em>H. brasiliensis</em>, their classification based on the functional domains and phylogenetic analysis, using different bioinformatics tools. All publicly available nucleotide sequences were collected and curated by eliminating sequences that lack glycoside hydrolase family 17 (GH 17) domain as well as the partial and closely identical sequences and obtained 14 full-length sequences. The sequences were categorized into 4 distinct classes (I-IV) based on their functional domains and C-terminal extension. Class III and IV which lack the carbohydrate-binding C-terminal X8 domain are the largest classes identified with 5 β-1,3-glucanase each while 4 β-1,3-glucanase contain a variable C-terminal X8 domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed the clustering of β-1,3-glucanases into six major clades (I-VI) based on the domains. Clades I and II were identified as the largest clades with 4 β-1,3-glucanase in each. Several paralogous clusters have been observed for <em>H. brasiliensis</em> indicating the gene family expansion within the species or in the immediate ancestors with possible species-specific function. Further functional characterization is necessary to select the suitable gene to be utilized in genetic improvement and the present study provides a platform for it.</p> Xin Jie Lui, Gincy P. Thottathil , Sudesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on The Induction of Callus from Cotyledon and Hypocotyl Explants of Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea) <p><em>Clitoria ternatea</em> (Butterfly pea) is a tropical medicinal and fodder legume from the Fabaceae family possessing various beneficial phytochemical compounds linked to the mammalian neuroprotective mechanism. Callus and cell suspension cultures are excellent alternatives for harnessing secondary metabolites from medicinal plants. The current study aims to induce callus from cotyledon and hypocotyl explants of <em>C. ternatea</em> for the establishment of cell suspension cultures. Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants from two-weeks-old seedlings were subjected to half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different concentrations (0.5 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L) and callus scoring and morphology were assessed at week 8 of culture. Results revealed that the treatment of 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D resulted in the highest percentage of callus induction (100%) and the highest callus scoring for both cotyledon and hypocotyl explants with friable callus morphology. Cotyledon explants exhibited a higher callus scoring with a relative value of 3.03 ± 0.20 compared to hypocotyl explants at 1.80 ± 0.12. This study thereby provides a basis for future studies on callus induction studies and the establishment of cell suspension cultures of <em>C. ternatea </em>for the production of valuable secondary metabolites linked to the memory enhancing properties of the plant.</p> Siew Chin Teoh, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Bee Lynn Chew Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ficus deltoidea var. kunstleri Extract Administration in Hypercholesterolaemic, Atherosclerotic Rabbits: Effects on Organ Function, Morphology, and Atherosclerosis Development <p><em>Ficus deltoidea</em> (FD) is used in traditional Malay medicine to treat various ailments and has been shown to be safe in toxicity studies. However, the information on the safety and efficacy of FD in the atherosclerosis-induced animal model is limited. This study aims to investigate the safety of FD var. <em>kunstleri</em> (FDK) extract on high cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced atherosclerotic rabbits and its efficacy in treating atherosclerosis. New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: G1 (1% HCD for 4 weeks) and G2 (1% HCD for 8 weeks). Each group was randomised into FDK700 (700 mg FDK/kg/day for G1 and G2), FDK800 (800 mg FDK/kg/day for G2), simvastatin (5 mg/kg/day) and placebo. The body weight, blood pressure, serum biochemistry and histopathological examination were obtained to assess any toxicity signs. Fasting lipid profile, soluble c-reactive protein (sCRP) level and atherosclerotic plaque formation were compared between treated and placebo groups to evaluate treatment efficacy. Results: No significant differences were observed in all safety parameters between the treated and placebo groups (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). FDK treatment did not show significant differences in all parameters evaluated in both treatment arms. In conclusion, FDK extract up to 800 mg/kg is safe for use in atherosclerotic rabbits. It has neutral effects on lipid profile, inflammation and atherosclerosis formation.</p> Amirah Mohd Ariff, Effat Omar, Suhaila Muid, Noor Alicezah Mohd Kasim, Nor Hadiani Ismail, Hapizah Nawawi Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 miR-99a-5p and miR-148a-3p as Candidate Molecular Biomarkers for the Survival of Lung Cancer Patients <p style="font-weight: 400;">MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising biomarker for improving the current state of an early lung cancer diagnosis. Multiple studies have reported that circulating miRNAs are usually combined in a single panel in determining the risk of lung cancer. In this study, we sought to identify the potential miRNAs as biomarkers for the survival of lung cancer patients. The microarray analysis was performed on the isolated miRNA samples of formalin-fixed lung cancer tissues from Malaysian populations. The correlation between miRNA expression and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patient survival was predicted using TGGA data, followed by extensive <em>in silico</em> analyses, including miRNA target gene identification, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction, subnetwork (SN) detection, functional enrichment analysis, gene-disease associations, and survival analysis in advanced-stage LUAD. Overall, two promising <em>miR-99a-5p</em>and <em>miR-148a-3p</em> were upregulated in the patients with good survival. We found that 64 <em>miR-99a-5p</em> and 95 <em>miR-148a-3p</em>target genes were associated with poor prognosis and highly participated in cancer-associated processes, such as apoptosis, mRNA transport and cell-cell adhesion. The density score of 4.667, 3.333, and 3.000 in respective SN1, SN2, and SN3 showed the significant subnetworks of constructed PPI leading to the identification of 17 targets, of which ~79% of them involved in neoplastic diseases. Four high-confidence target genes (<em>SUDS3</em>, <em>TOMM22</em>, <em>KPNA4</em>, and <em>HMGB1</em>) were associated with worse overall survival in LUAD patients, implying their critical roles in LUAD pathogenesis. These findings shed additional light on the roles of <em>miR-99a-5p</em> and <em>miR-148a-3p</em> as potential biomarkers for LUAD survival.</p> Muhammad-Redha Abdullah-Zawawi, Mira-Farzana Mohamad-Mokhtar, Saiful Effendi Syafruddin, Fateen Farhana Ibrahim, Isa Mohamed Rose, Roslan Harun, Nor Azian Abdul Murad Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Fri, 28 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Regeneration of Syzygium myrtifolium Walp. from Seed Fragments – Evidence of Polyembryony? <p>Intact <em>Syzygium</em> <em>myrtifolium</em> seed produces a single seedling although most species within the same genus are polyembryonic. Following the earlier work that found the potential of more than one plantlet development from the fractionated seeds of some monoembryonic <em>Eugenia</em> spp. belonging to the same family, the present work assessed the sprouting of <em>S</em>. <em>myrtifolium</em> seed fractions on moistened paper towel pads. This study was carried out in the enclosed plastic boxes at ambient temperature in the laboratory. The results obtained indicated that the different parts of the cotyledons could develop plantlets spontaneously following incision of a seed into separated fractions. Despite the reduced mass, the seed fragments revealed the potential of developing more than one plantlet in vivo from a seed. Injury or seed incision has been suggested to trigger the development of embryonic cell in the cotyledon leading to the formation of an entire plant in contrast to polarity committed by whole seed. For the fragmented seeds that did not regenerate full plants, more than 80% of them exhibited unsynchronized adventitious root development. In the re-growth evaluation, more than 70% of the seed fragments formed new adventitious roots on the new cotyledonary surfaces after the removal of plantlets and the attached cotyledons. This phenomenon suggests the spread of meristematic tissues within the cotyledons. Future work should look into the intrinsic signals and external cues that regulate the cellular differentiation and development in the seed fractions in revealing the polyembryony in <em>S</em>. <em>myrtifolium</em>.</p> Fui Ying Tsan Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Mon, 03 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Sensitive Raw Materials at A Milk Preparation Room of A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the Canselor Tuanku Muhriz Hospital <p>The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system in infant milk preparation can prevent and reduce the risk of bacterial contamination in infant feedings. Therefore, it is very important to determine the sensitive raw materials (SRM) in a milk room of a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to prevent contamination that can affect the safety of milk feeding. This study was conducted to identify the SRM at the milk preparation room of a NICU in the Canselor Tuanku Muhriz Hospital, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SRM were identified via HACCP system decision tree by the Malaysian Standard (MS1480:2007).. The results showed that donor expressed breast milk (DEBM), expressed breast milk at home (EBMH), freshly expressed breast milk (FEBM) and powdered infant formula (PIF) were identified as SRM. Expressed breast milk (DEBM, EBMH, FEBM) were known as non-sterile milk which were able to transmit pathogenic microorganisms such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from the mother or donor. PIF is also not sterile that are associated with Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella infections causing serious illnesses among premature and infants. Ready to feed milk (RTF) is classified as non-sensitive material as it is sterile, free from bacterial contamination and safe for high-risk infant’s feeding compare to PIF. Preventive measures were applied to control the significant hazards in all identified SRM to ensure the final product (milk) is safe for consumption.</p> Mahirah Mohamad, Shareena Ishak, Norrakiah Abdullah Sani Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Society of Applied Biology Mon, 03 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000