ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF ROOT METHANOL EXTRACT OF Goniothalamus lanceolatus Miq. AND ITS ISOLATED BIOACTIVE COMPOUND (PARVISTONE D) IN MURINE MODEL
Keywords:Acute oral toxicity, Goniothalamus lanceolatus, mortality, parvistone D, root methanol extract
Goniothalamus lanceolatus Miq. is widely used by the indigenous people of Sarawak, Malaysia as a folk remedy to treat various ailments including skin diseases, cold, and fever. A previous study reported that the root methanol extract, and parvistone D, an active compound of the plant, showed promising in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium parasites. However, there is limited data reporting on its toxicological profile. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the potential toxicity of root methanol extract and parvistone D of G. lanceolatus in mice. The acute oral toxicity of the extract and compound was assessed at a single dose of 2000 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, and body weight changes for 14 days. At the end of the experiment, relative organ weights were measured, and gross examination, as well as histopathological analysis, were performed. There was no sign of toxicity, and mortality seen in mice treated with G. lanceolatus root methanol extract, and parvistone D at the administered doses. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the body and relative organ weights between the control and treated groups. Gross and histopathological examinations showed normal appearance of the liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, and lungs as compared to their respective control groups. In conclusion, oral administration of root methanol extract, and parvistone D of G. lanceolatus are safe at the studied dosage levels and cause no acute toxicity in mice.
Akhila, J., Shyamjith, D. & Alwar, M. 2007. Acute toxicity studies and determination of median lethal dose. Current Science, 93(7): 917-920
Bihud, N.V., Rasol, N.E., Imran, S., Awang, K., Ahmad, F.B., Mai, C.W., Leong, C.O., Cordell, G.A. & Ismail, N.H. 2019. Goniolanceolatins A–H, cytotoxic Bis-styryllactones from Goniothalamus lanceolatus. Journal of Natural Products, 82(9): 2430-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b01067
Dawurung, C.J., Nguyen, M.T.H., Pengon, J., Dokladda, K., Bunyong, R., Rattanajak, R., Kamchonwongpaisan, S., Nguyen, P.T.M. & Pyne, S.G. 2021. Isolation of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants used in traditional medicine: Rautandiol B, a potential lead compound against Plasmodium falciparum. BMC Complement Medicine and Therapies, 21: 231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03406-y
Dybing, E., Doe, J., Groten, J., Kleiner, J. & O’Brien, J. 2002. Hazard characterization of chemicals in food and diet: dose response, mechanism and extrapolation issues. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40(2-3): 237-282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(01)00115-6
Ekanayake, C.P., Thammitiyagodage, M.G., Padumadasa, S., Seneviratne, B., Padumadasa, C. & Abeysekera, A.M. 2019. Acute and subacute toxicity studies of the ethyl acetate soluble proanthocyanidins of the immature inflorescence of Cocos nucifera L. in female wistar rats. BioMed Research International, 3: 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8428304
Erhirhie, E.O., Ihekwereme, C.P. & Ilodigwe, E.E. 2018. Advances in acute toxicity testing: strengths, weaknesses and regulatory acceptance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 11(1): 5-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/intox-2018-0001
Gouws, C. & Hamman, J.H. 2020. What are the dangers of drug interactions with herbal medicines?. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 16(3): 165-167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2020.1733969
Jothy, S.L., Zakaria, Z., Chen, Y., Lau, Y.L., Latha, L.Y. & Sasidharan, S. 2011. Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice. Molecules, 16(6): 5268-5282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16065268
Kaharudin, F.A., Zohdi, R.M., Mukhtar, S.M., Sidek, H.M., Bihud, N.V., Rasol, N.E., Ahmad, F.B. & Ismail, N.H. 2020. In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity activities of crude extracts and major compounds from Goniothalamus lanceolatus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 254: 112657. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112657
Kaid, F., Alabsi, A.M., Al-Afifi, N., Ali-Saeed, R., Al-Koshab, A., Ramanathan, A. & Ali, A.M. 2019. Histological, biochemical, and hematological effects of Goniothalamin on selective internal organs of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Toxicology, 3: 6493286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6493286
Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B. & Trevor, A.J. 2012. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 12th Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 1229 pp.
Mustafa, G., Arif, R., Atta, A., Sharif, D. & Jamil, A. 2017. Bioactive compounds from medicinal plants and their importance in drug discovery in Pakistan. Matrix Science Pharma, 1(1): 17-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26480/msp.01.2017.17.26
Nfozon, J.N., Tume, C., Kdjo, N., Boyom, F.F., Leonard, S.F., Dzoyem JP, & Metinous, S. 2019. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of Triplotaxis stellulifera (Beuth) Hutch and Crasssocephalum bougheyanum C.D. Adams methanol extract on mice. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry, 8(3): 385.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). Test No. 423: acute oral toxicity–acute toxic class method. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemical Section 4. Paris: OECD; 2001.
Olayode, O., Daniyan, M. & Olayiwola, G. 2020. Biochemical, hematological and histopathological evaluation of the toxicity potential of the leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis in rats. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 10(6): 544-554. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2019.05.001
Pariyani, R., Safinar, I.I., Azam, A.A., Abas, F., Shaari, K. & Sulaiman, M.R. 2015. Phytochemical screening and acute oral toxicity study of Java tea leaf extracts. BioMed Research International, 742420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/742420
Piao, Y., Liu, Y. & Xie, X. 2013. Change trends of organ weight background data in Sprague Dawley rats at different ages. Journal of Toxicologic Pathology, 26(1): 29-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1293/tox.26.29
Rasol, N.E., Ahmad, F.B., Mai, C.W., Bihud, N.V., Abdullah, F., Awang, K. & Ismail, N.H. 2018. Styryl lactones from roots and barks Goniothalamus lanceolatus. Natural Product Communications, 13(12): 1575-1578. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1801301203
Razali, N., Othman, N., Ismail, N.H., Bihud, N.V., Ismail, N.H. & Yusof, F.Z.M. 2021. Goniothalamus lanceolatus extract inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells through migration suppression and apoptosis induction. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(04): 076-087.
Wiart, C. 2007. Goniothalamus species: a source of drugs for the treatment of cancers and bacterial infections?. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4(3): 299-311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nem009
World Health Organization (WHO) global report on traditional and complementary medicine 2019. Geneva. Retrieve from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/312342/9789241515436eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed on 12 January 2022).
Yuan, H., Ma, Q., Ye, L. & Piao, G. 2016. The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules, 21(5): 559. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050559
Zohdi, R.M., Mukhtar, S.M., Bihud, N.V., Rasol, N.E., Ahmad, F.B., Awang, K. & Ismail, N.H. In vivo antiplasmodial and toxicological effects of Goniothalamus lanceolatus crude extracts. Natural Product Communications, 12(8): 1251-1254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1701200826
How to Cite
Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (firstname.lastname@example.org). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission