Instructions to Author

Malaysian Applied Biology publishes scientific articles on original research in all fields of biology and applied biology or in any related scientific field provided it has not been considered for publication in other journals. Acceptance for publication is based on contribution to scientific knowledge, originality of data, ideas or interpretations and on their conciseness, scientific accuracy and clarity, as judged by two referees appointed by the Editorial Board.

Manuscript submitted to the journal must be original, previously unpublished and not under the consideration of other journals simultaneously. Authors are responsible to obtain written permissions to reproduce any materials from other sources that are used in the manuscript, e.g. figures, tables and illustrations.

Manuscript Categories

The journal publishes research articles, review articles and research notes.


  • All authors must be listed in the contributor list when submitting the manuscript in the online submission system.
  • Anyone who contributed to the work but does not meet the criteria of authorship should be listed in the acknowledgements section.
  • No addition of author is permitted after acceptance. 

Preparing the Manuscripts

  • The preferred format for submitted manuscript is Microsoft Word. Submitting your manuscript in this format ensures it will be handled in the most efficient manner.
  • Manuscripts should be 1.5 spaced and 12-points Times New Roman throughout i.e. including title, heading, abstract and references with normal margins.
  • A title page in a separate file should include the title, author's name, affiliation, running title, abstract, key words, address and email of corresponding author.
  • The title should be repeated in the main text file. Do not include author’s name and affiliation in the main text.
  • Every page of the manuscript, including references, tables etc., should be numbered on the upper right-hand corner.
  • Insert line number continuously in each page
  • Words that should be in italics, must be typed as such or underlined. Do not underline any other word.
  • The full paper should not exceed eight printed pages. Authors will be charged for additional pages printed.
  • Manuscript should be divided into the following sections: INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS and METHODS, RESULTS/and DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (if any), REFERENCES.
  • Headings of sections should be capitalized, flushed to the left.
  • Sub-headings should be typed in lower-case, flushed to the left.
  • The text should be typed two spaces below the section heading.
  • The abstract should be clear and informative when read in isolation. It should not be longer than 200 words. The heading should be capitalized followed by the text. The abstract should be in English.


  • The abstract should be clear and informative when read in isolation. It should not be longer than 200 words. The heading should be capitalized followed by the text. The abstract should be in English.

Key words

  • Please provide a minimum of four and maximum of six key words. The key words must be arranged in alphabetical order.


  • Authors should take note of the limitations set by the size and layout of the journal. Large tables should be avoided.
  • Each table should be typed on a separate page of the manuscript. All captions to tables should be typed together in lower-case.
  • Double space title box headings and all other lines. Avoid unnecessary use of abbreviations.
  • Each table should be provided with a brief and self-explanatory title.
  • Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns.
  • Wherever possible, large data sets should be presented in two or more tables for clarity.


  • Figures and photographs are to be labelled as figures (Fig.). Full spelling Figure should be used in the main text. Each figure should be submitted on a separate page (in the same manuscript main text file, do not submit in different files – refer to the final page of template).
  • Captions to all figures should be typed in lower-case together on a separate page.
  • Illustrations should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. References should be made in the text to each illustration.
  • Line drawings and lettering should be bold enough to allow a reduction of 50% without becoming illegible.
  • Font in the illustrations should be standardized.
  • Identify each figure lightly in pencil on the back.
  • Photographs should be supplied as black - and - white high contrast glossy prints. Colour photographs may be printed at the expense of the authors.
  • Do not paste photographs on cards.

Scientific names

  • The complete Latin name (genus, species and authority) must be given in full for every organism when first mentioned in the text.
  • Italicize Latin names of genera and species.

Units, symbols and abbreviations

  • Only SI units should be used, e.g. g (gram), µL (microlitre), kg (kilogram), cm (centimeter), ha (hectare), g (gravity), hr (hour), min (minute), s (second), °C (centigrade).
  • Please use the correct symbols using the insert symbol function in Microsoft Word.
  • With abbreviations, as few periods as possible should be used. Write LSD, SE, IAA, EDTA etc.
  • Isotopes should be indicated:14C, 32P and not C14 or P32; the exception being carbon-14 etc.


  • If several references are cited together in the text, they should be arranged chronologically and not alphabetically.
  • References to unpublished work and personal communications should be kept to a minimum.
  • All papers cited in the text should be given in parentheses, e.g. (Child, 1992; Smith & Cohen, 1993; Joshi et al., 1994) except when the author is mentioned e.g., "and the study of Hillman and Tasca (1990) and Joshiet al. (1994)".
  • The list of references should be arranged alphabetically according to authors' names and chronologically for each author.
  • In cited references, papers with single authorship should be cited before joint authorship.
  • Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1984a, 1984b etc.
  • Journal names should be spelled out in full.
  • Use the following system to arrange your references:

Journal Articles

Tay, T.W., Marina, M.T., Wong, C.H., Zubaid, A. & Kamis, A.B. 2001. Reproductive cycle of Hipposideros larvatus, from undisturbed lowland tropical forest. Malaysian Applied Biology30(1&2): 93-98.

Note: The colon symbol is not in bold. No space between each author’s initials (e.g. T.W.)


Ismail, B.S. 1992. Sains Rumpai. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur. 242 pp. (Malay).

Hall, J.L., Flowers, T.J. and Robert, R.M. 1982. Plant Cell Structure and Metabolism. 2nd Ed. Longman, Singapore. 544 pp.

Note: If the book title is in English, no need to italicise.

Work in an edited collection/Chapter in a book

Shukor, J. and Ismail, B.S. 1989. Effects of shade and flooding on growth and development of Asystasia intrusa. In: Weed Management. B.A. Auld, R.C. Umaly and S.S. Tjitrosomo (Eds.). Biotrop Special Publication No. 38, Seameo-Biotrop, Bogor. pp. 63-69.

Puteri, D., Ismail, A. and Farzana, M.E. 2019. Using LICOR-6400XT to measure photosynthesis. In: Physiology of Rice. T. Henry and A. Sammy (Eds.). Kita Publication, Bangi. pp. 74-85.


Ishak, M. 2017. Effect of global warming to rice. Berita Harian, February 15, p. 17.


Bouman, S. & Lafitte, R. 2009. How much water does rice use? Rice Today, September, pp. 28–29.

Ika, M., Avi, R. & Sarah, S. 2010. Gravitational pull. Cosmology, June, pp. 45-47.


Sarimah, M., Aqlili, A., Saman, E. & Aminah, W. 2002. The fifty-year report of river pollution, Report Number 15. Public Awareness Publisher, Mersing.


Noraziyah, A.A.S. 2014. Pyramiding of Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Yield Under Drought Into Elite Malaysia Rice Cultivars Using Marker-assisted Selection (Ph.D). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.


Jusop, S. 2020. Climate change threatens our food security [WWW Document]. News Straits Times. URL (accessed 7.23.20).

The Malaysian Times. 2014. Kerosakan padi akibat kemarau dibanci [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 8.23.18).


Faeiza, R. 2006. Effects of nutrient on growth performance of Shorea, in: Proceeding of Nature Malaysia. Routledge, London, pp. 65-72.

Wana, M. & Aliah, K. 2018. Flowers of Borneo, in: Annual Conference of Plant Scientist Proceeding. Kita Publisher, Kota Kinabalu, pp. 104-112.

Abbreviation of author's name:

The recommended style is as in the following example: Abdul Rahim bin Hj. Mohamed Ali should be abbreviated as: Abdul-Rahim, M.A. or Mohamed-Ali, A.R. or Ali, A.R.M.

Language and editing

  • Manuscripts submitted which contain many typographical errors will not be published. Authors from non-English language speaking countries who have poor English language writing skills, are advised to contact a professional language editing company prior to submitting their manuscripts to the journal. Manuscripts which are accepted for publication on condition that the written English submitted is needed to be corrected, must provide proof from the professional language editing company to ensure the manuscripts are free from typographical errors.

Galley Proofs

  • When proofs are received, they should be corrected and returned to the Editor within 3 days. No changes other than editorial corrections should be made.

Research Notes

  • The journal offers the opportunity to publish Research Notes, e.g. on methods or preliminary results.
  • The manuscript should not exceed three printed pages inclusive of tables and illustrations.
  • The presentation and format of Research Notes in typed form are similar to those of a normal paper, but without section headings.
  • An abstract is not required.

Submission of articles

  • Three potential reviewers should be suggested upon submission of article in a separate file. 
  • A cover letter to Chief Editor should be submitted with the manuscript.