• H ABDUL RAHMAN School of Ocean Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman
  • M.H.M SALLEH School of Ocean Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman
  • N.S MD SALIM School of Fundamental Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman


Paddy, puffing, microwave, puffed rice, MR297


Puffed rice, is a popular ready-to-eat product especially in South-East Asia. In this study, an attempt is made to examine the effectiveness of puffing the Malaysia paddy variety MR297 using domestic microwave oven. The experiment was carried out based on two parameters, which are three levels of microwave power (600, 700 and 800 Watt) and three levels of moisture content (11, 14 and 17 % w.b.). The best condition for puffing the paddy was determined based on the puffed yield and expansion volume. The results show that adequate moisture content is required to generate sufficient internal pressure for puffing. The puffed yield and expansion volume were higher with an increase in microwave power. The best conditions to obtain highest puffing yield with the expansion volume of 2.22 mL/g were found to be at a moisture content of 14% w.b. with the microwave power level of 800 Watt. Further studies need to be carried out in order to improve the performance of microwave puffing process for Malaysia paddy variety MR297.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


AOAC. 2000. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis (17th Ed.), 9(3): 471-471.

Bhatt, H.K. & Joshi, D.C. 2014. Standardization of Pretreatments for Production of Ready-To-Puff Rice Using Microwave Energy. Journal of Grain Processing and Storage, 1(2): 47-53.

Chanlat, N. & Songsermpong, S. 2013. Microwave puffing of various paddy varieties: Effects of moisture content and calcium chloride. Methods, 2014.

Das, S.K., Rangnath, M.J. & Dash, K.K. 2015. Preconditioning of parboiled rice kernels with different concentrations of NaCl and KCl: Its microstructure and microwave puffing characteristics. In 2015 ASABE International Meeting (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Devi, M.K. & Das, S.K. 2017. Kinetics of color changes of popped rice during microwave popping: Effect of salt and moisture content. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40(6): e12560.

FAOSTAT. 2018. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved August 30, 2018.

Joshi, N.D., Mohapatra, D., Joshi, D.C. & Sutar, R.F. 2014. Puffing Characteristics of Parboiled Milled Rice in a Domestic Convective – Microwave Oven and Process Optimization. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(6): 1678-1688.

Kamaraddi, V. & Prakash, J. 2015. Assessment of suitability of selected rice varieties for production of expanded rice. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2015.1112675

Kapoor, P. 2013. Nutritional and Functional Properties of Popped Little Millet (“Panicum Sumatrense”). McGill University Libraries.

Maisont, S. & Narkrugsa, W. 2010. Effects of salt, moisture content and microwave power on puffing qualities of puffed rice. Kasetsart Journal of Natural Science, 44(2): 251-261.

Mishra, G., Joshi, D.C. & Panda, B.K. 2014. Popping and puffing of cereal grains: a review. Journal of Grain Processing and Storage, 1(2): 34-46.

Murugesan, G. & Bhattacharya, K.R. 1991. Effect of some pretreatments on popping expansion of rice. Journal of Cereal Science, 13(1): 85-92.

Nath, A., Chattopadhyay, P.K. & Majumdar, G.C. 2007. High temperature short time air puffed ready-to-eat (RTE) potato snacks: Process parameter optimization. Journal of Food Engineering, 80(3): 770-780.

Orsat, V., Raghavan, G.S.V. & Krishnaswamy, K. 2017. Microwave technology for food processing: An overview of current and future applications. The Microwave Processing of Foods, 100-116.

Payne, F.A., Taraba, J.L. & Saputra, D. 1989. A review of puffing processes for expansion of biological products. Journal of Food Engineering, 10(3): 183-197.

Segnini, S., Pedreschi, F. & Dejmek, P. 2004. Volume measurement method of potato chips. International Journal of Food Properties, 7(1): 37-44.

Singh, J. & Singh, N. 1999. Effects of different ingredients and microwave power on popping characteristics of popcorn. Journal of Food Engineering, 42(3): 161-165.

Sivasankar, B. 2002. Cereals, Legumes and Nuts. In Food processing and preservation (p. 284). New Delhi/: Prentice-Hall of India.

Song, H., Ma, S., Lai, C., Wu, X., An, F. & Tong, J. 2015. Instant Pressure Drop Evaluation during Saturated Steam Puffing of Carrots. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 3(2): 46-57.

Swarnakar, A.K., Devi, M.K. & Das, S.K. 2014. Popping characteristics of paddy using microwave energy and optimization of process parameters. International Journal of Food Studies, 3(1).

Wongsa, J., Uttapap, D., Lamsal, B.P. & Rungsardthong, V. 2016. Effect of puffing conditions on physical properties and rehydration characteristic of instant rice product. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(3): 672-680.



How to Cite

ABDUL RAHMAN, H., SALLEH, M., & MD SALIM, N. (2019). EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT AND MICROWAVE POWER ON PUFFED YIELD AND EXPANSION VOLUME OF MALAYSIAN PADDY VARIETY MR297. Malaysian Applied Biology, 48(1), 139–143. Retrieved from https://jms.mabjournal.com/index.php/mab/article/view/2304