The Interaction of Immune System in Tumour Microenvironment and Possible Role of Cancer Cell Immnunosensitization for Better Treatment Efficacy: A Review


  • Farhana Khamarudin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia; Institute for Medical Molecular Biotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mudiana Muhamad Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Jesmine Khan Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohammad Johari Ibahim Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Wan Nor 'Izzah Wan Mohamad Zain Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mardiana Abdul Aziz Department of Pathology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nurul Raudzah Adib Ridzuan Department of Anatomy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Sharaniza Ab Rahim Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia


cancer, immunosensitization, immune system, immunotherapy, tumour microenvironment


Unlike haematologic malignant cells which express cell surface common antigens uniformly and are susceptible to targeted cancer immunotherapy, solid tumours either lack such antigens or have been mutated due to chemotherapy or other therapeutic interventions. Moreover, rapidly dividing tumour cells present complex and dynamic tumour metabolism, which hampers immune cells' reactivity against the tumour cells. Hence solid tumours other than immune-sensitive cancers such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma are less responsive towards current cellular immunotherapy strategies, including cytokine therapy, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and immune-activating antibodies. Nonetheless, emerging evidence supports combined approaches that target immunosuppressive or antiapoptotic molecules, involving sensitization of the cancer cells by immunosensitizing drugs to express specific ligands that will be recognized by the immune cells via trafficking. This review highlights the immune system's involvement in the tumour microenvironment and the potential significance of cancer cell immunosensitization for improved treatment outcomes.


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How to Cite

Khamarudin, F., Muhamad, M., Khan, J. ., Ibahim, M. J. ., Wan Mohamad Zain, W. N. ’Izzah, Abdul Aziz, M., Adib Ridzuan, N. R., & Ab Rahim, S. (2023). The Interaction of Immune System in Tumour Microenvironment and Possible Role of Cancer Cell Immnunosensitization for Better Treatment Efficacy: A Review. Malaysian Applied Biology, 52(6), 11–21.



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