GC-MS Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Water Extracts of Malaysian Heterotrigona itama Propolis Against Selected Human Pathogenic Bacteria



  • Rozaini Mohd Zohdi Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Pharmaceutical Life Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Amirul Adli Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Pharmaceutical Life Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Hanis Fadzillah Mohsin Department of Pharmaceutical Life Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Shahida Muhamad Mokhtar Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Anis Low Muhammad Low Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia; School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Negeri Sembilan Branch, Kuala Pilah Campus, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Awang Hazmi Awang Junaidi Department of Veterinary Pre-Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Dzu Hendra Ja Jahrudin Belantara Sr Enterprise, Kg Simpang Empat, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia


Antibacterial, disc diffusion, Heterotrigona itama, stingless bee propolis, minimum inhibitory concentration, GC-MS


Despite the growing interest in the therapeutic potential of propolis, limited attention has been paid to the chemical composition and biological activity of water extract propolis produced by Malaysian stingless bees. Thus, this study aimed to determine the phytochemical composition and antibacterial potential of ethanolic extract propolis (EEP) and water extract propolis (WEP) of the stingless bee species, Heterotrigona itama against ten pathogenic bacteria. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The antibacterial activity was determined using the disc-diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The GC-MS analysis of EEP exhibited four volatile compounds including hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, 2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-coumaranone, and diethyl bis(trimethylsilyl) ester silicic acid. However, only two compounds were identified in WEP, consisting of 2-(acetoxymethyl)-3-(methoxycarbonyl)biphenylene, and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane. EEP showed the highest antibacterial activity against all Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans) with values of the inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 10 mm. However, both extracts showed no antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, except WEP, which displayed an inhibition zone of 9.33 ± 1.53 mm against Escherichia coli. Meanwhile, EEP showed the lowest MIC and MBC values against M. luteus at 70 and 280 μg/mL, respectively. The results revealed the presence of several volatile compounds in the EEP of H. itama which could contribute to its antibacterial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria.


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30-06-2023 — Updated on 07-07-2023


How to Cite

Zohdi, R. M., Adli, M. A., Mohsin, H. F., Mokhtar, S. . M., Muhammad Low, A. L. ., Junaidi, A. H. A., & Jahrudin, D. H. J. (2023). GC-MS Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Water Extracts of Malaysian Heterotrigona itama Propolis Against Selected Human Pathogenic Bacteria. Malaysian Applied Biology, 52(2), 77–84. https://doi.org/10.55230/mabjournal.v52i2.2657 (Original work published June 30, 2023)



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