Extraction of Oil From Solid Fat of Silver Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Waste by Centrifugation



  • Muhammad Aziq Mohd Azmi Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang Al-Sultan Abdullah, Lebuh Persiaran Tun Khalil Yaakob, 26300, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang
  • Rohana Abu Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang Al-Sultan Abdullah, Lebuh Persiaran Tun Khalil Yaakob, 26300, Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang


Centrifugation, fatty acids, fish oil, fish waste, one-factor-at-a-time, silver catfish


Oil extracted from fish waste could be a source of valuable fatty acids such as saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study, the solid fat from silver catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) waste was used to extract oil by centrifugation using different extraction solvent (distilled water, 70% ethanol, 70% acetone and 70% cyclohexane), rotation time (15, 25, 35 & 45 min), rotational speed (2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 & 10000 r.p.m) and rotational temperature (5, 10, 15, 20 & 25 °C). The compositions of fatty acids in the extracted oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The highest oil yield of 156.7 ± 16.7 mg/g was achieved by centrifugation at 10000 r.p.m, 25 °C for 15 min using 70% acetone. The extracted oil contains 0.0223 mg/g palmitic acid, 0.0216 mg/g steric acid, and 0.0262 mg/g oleic acid. However, the essential PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could not be detected by GC-MS analysis. This study found that the fish oil extracted from the solid fat of the silver catfish waste can be used as a potential source of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Adeoti, I.A. & Hawboldt, K. 2014. A review of lipid extraction from fish processing by-product for use as a biofuel. Biomass and Bioenergy, 63: 330-340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.02.011

Alfio, V.G., Manzo, C. & Micillo, R. 2021. From fish waste to value: An overview of the sustainable recovery of omega-3 for food supplements. Molecules, 26(4): 1002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041002

Amiza, M.A., Ow, Y.W. & Faazaz, A.L. 2013. Physicochemical properties of silver catfish (Pangasius sp.) frame hydrolysate. International Food Research Journal, 20(3): 1255-1262.

Ayu, D.F., Diharmi, A. & Ali, A. 2019. Characterization of the oil from the abdomen part of smoked catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) processing by-product. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 22(1): 187-197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v22i1.26473

Bruno, S.F., Kudre, T.G. & Bhaskar, N. 2019. Impact of pretreatment-assisted enzymatic extraction on recovery, physicochemical and rheological properties of oil from Labeo rohita head. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 42(3): e12990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12990

Coppola, D., Lauritano, C., Palma Esposito, F., Riccio, G., Rizzo, C. & de Pascale, D. 2021. Fish waste: from problem to valuable resource. Marine Drugs, 19(2): 116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/md19020116

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2020. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in action. Rome.

Ivanovs, K. & Blumberga, D. 2017. Extraction of fish oil using green extraction methods: A short review. Energy Procedia, 128: 477-483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.033

Khawli, F.A, Pateiro, M., Domínguez, R., Lorenzo, J.M., Gullón, P., Kousoulaki, K., Ferrer, E., Berrada, H. & Barba, F.J. 2019. Innovative green technologies of intensification for valorization of seafood and their by-products. Marine Drugs, 17(12): 689. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120689

Lionetto, F. & Esposito Corcione, C. 2021. Recent applications of biopolymers derived from fish industry waste in food packaging. Polymers, 13: 2337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142337

Majekodunmi, S.O. 2015. A review on centrifugation in the pharmaceutical industry. American Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 5(2): 67-78.

Mat Yasin, N.H., Ahmad, N.A.N. & Mohd Hanapi, M.F. 2021. Extraction of FAME from fish waste by using modified Soxhlet method. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1092(1): 012015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/1092/1/012015

Musa, K.H., Abdullah, A., Jusoh, K., & Subramaniam, V. 2011. Antioxidant activity of pink-flesh guava (Psidium guajava L.): Effect of extraction techniques and solvents. Food Analytical Methods, 4(1): 100-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-010-9139-3

MYAgro. 2022. Ikan patin [WWW Document]. Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industries. URL http://portal.myagro.moa.gov.my/ms/dof/faqua/Pages/Patin (accessed 9.6.22).

Nam, P.V., Van Hoa, N., Anh, T.T.L. & Trung, T.S. 2020. Towards zero-waste recovery of bioactive compounds from catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) by-products using an enzymatic method. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 11(8): 4195-4206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00758-y

Ozogul, F., Cagalj, M., Simat, V., Ozogul, Y. & Tkaczewska, J. 2021. Recent developments in valorisation of bioactive ingredients in discard/seafood processing by-products. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 116: 559-582. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2021.08.007

Rubio-Rodríguez, N., De Diego, S.M., Beltrán, S., Jaime, I., Sanz, M.T. & Rovira, J. 2012. Supercritical fluid extraction of fish oil from fish by-products: A comparison with other extraction methods. Journal of Food Engineering, 109(2): 238-248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.011

Saba, A.O., Ismail, A., Zulkifli, S.Z., Shohaimi, S., Jamil, N.R., Nawi, N.M., Ghani, I.F.A., Halim, M.R.A. & Amal, M.N.A. 2020. Checklists, production trends, and potential ecological and socioeconomic impacts of non-native freshwater fishes in Malaysia: A review. Aquatic Invasions, 15(4): 646-670. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3391/ai.2020.15.4.07

Sahena, F., Zaidul, I.S.M., Jinap, S., Jahurul, M.H.A., Khatib, A. & Norulaini, N.A.N. 2010. Extraction of fish oil from the skin of Indian mackerel using supercritical fluids. Journal of Food Engineering, 99(1): 63-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.01.038

Suseno, S.H., Rizkon, A.K., Jacoeb, A.M., Kamini, & Listiana, D. 2021. Fish oil extraction as a by-product of Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fish processing with dry rendering method. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 679: 012009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/679/1/012009



How to Cite

Azmi, M. A. M., & Abu, R. (2023). Extraction of Oil From Solid Fat of Silver Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Waste by Centrifugation. Malaysian Applied Biology, 52(4), 127–132. https://doi.org/10.55230/mabjournal.v52i4.a162

Funding data