THE RESPONSES OF ROSELLE (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) TO THE APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN DEVELOPING SEEDLESS FRUIT AND MAINTAINING ITS QUALITY
Keywords:natural occurring hormone, postharvest, seedless, seaweed, parthenocarpic
Seedless fruit is a fruit developed to possess no mature seeds. Today lifestyle, consumers and/or manufacturers prefer fruit without seeds as removing it is time-consuming and troublesome. Indeed, seedless fruits have better organoleptic attributes than seeded fruits. To produce seedless roselle and maintain its postharvest quality, various spray applications of synthetic and naturally occurring plant growth regulators were investigated. Roselle is perishable and non-climacteric fruit that is exposed to rapid postharvest physiological deterioration following harvest. Thus, producing seedless fruit may reduce time and labor costs during the removing seed process. The experimental treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with different types of plant growth regulators and spray applications. The PGRs treatments at varying frequencies were sprayed on roselle flower buds at 35, 45, 55, and 65 days after transplanting (DAT). Among all PGRs treatments, the plant treated with 800 mg/L GA3 + seaweed extract (4 sprays) had developed seedless roselle fruit by exhibiting the smallest capsule diameter, capsule volume, and a low number of seeds. In a conclusion, the application of 800 mg/L GA3 + seaweed extract (4 sprays) was the effective concentration to produce seedless roselle fruit and maintain its postharvest quality.
Chen, X., Zhang, M., Tan, J., Huang, S., Wang, C., Zhang, H. & Tan, T. 2017. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights into molecular mechanisms for parthenocarpic fruit development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). PLoS ONE, 12(6): 0179491. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179491
Curry, E.A. 2005. Changes in ripening physiology of Delicious and Fuji apples treated preharvest with NAA. in: X International Symposium on Plant Bioregulators in Fruit Production 727. pp. 481-488. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.727.59
Davies, P.J. 1995. The plant hormone concept: Concentration, sensitivity and transport. In: Plant Hormones. P.J. Davies (Eds.). Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0473-9_2
dos Santos, R.C., Pereira, M.C.T., Mendes, D.S., Sobral, R.R.S., Nietsche, S., Mizobutsi, G.P. & dos Santos, B.H.C. 2016. Gibberellic acid induces parthenocarpy and increases fruit size in the 'Gefner' custard apple ('Annona cherimola' x 'Annona squamosa'). Australian Journal of Crop Science, 10(3): 314-321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.03.p6911
Huang, H. & Jiang, Y. 2012. Effect of plant growth regulators on banana fruit and broccoli during storage. Science Horticulturae, 145: 62-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.07.025
Ikeda, T., Yakushiji, H., Odaa, M., Taji, A. & Imada, S. 1999. Growth dependence of ovaries of facultatively parthenocarpic eggplant in vitro on indole-3-acetic acid content. Scientia Horticulturae, 79(3-4): 143-150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00210-6
Kadioglu, A. & Atalay, F. 1999. Induction of parthenocarpy in Rosa canina and Diospyros lotus by the application of growth regulators. Biologia Plantarum, 42(1): 155-157. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002193525969
Kim, I. S., Okubo, H. & Fujieda, K. 1992. Endogenous levels of IAA in relation to parthenocarpy in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 52(1-2): 1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(92)90002-T
Khan, W., Rayirath, U.P., Subramanian, S., Jithesh, M.N., Rayorath, P., Hodges, D.M., Critchley, A.T., Craigie, J.S., Norrie, J. & Prithiviraj, B. 2009. Seaweed extracts as biostimulants of plant growth and development. The Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 28: 386–399. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-009-9103-x
Kvikliene, N., Kviklys, D. & Sasnauskas, A. 2010. Effect of plant growth regulators on apple fruit preharvest drop and quality. Journal Fruit Ornamental Plant Research, 18(2): 79–84.
McGuire, R.G. 1992. Reporting of objective color measurements. Horticulture Science, 27(12): 1254-1255. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.27.12.1254
Mesejo, C., Reig, C., Martínez-Fuentes, A. & Agustí, M. 2010. Parthenocarpic fruit production in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) by using gibberellic acid. Scientia Horticulturae, 126(1): 37-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.06.009
Mezzetti, B., Landi, L., Pandolfini, T., Spena, A. 2004. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry. BMC Biotechnology, 4: 4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6750-4-4
Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry, 2019. Agrofood Statistics. Policy and Strategic Planning Division, Federal Government Administrative Centre, Putrajaya.
Mohamed, B.B., Sulaiman, A.A. & Dahab, A.A. 2012. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Sudan, cultivation, and their uses. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 1(6): 48-54.
Osman, M., Faruq, G., Saberi, S., Majid, N.A., Nagoor, N.H. & Zulqarnain, M. 2011. Morpho-agronomic analysis of three roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) mutants in tropical Malaysia. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(10): 1150.
Rasul, M.G., Mian, M.A.K., Cho, Y., Ozaki, Y. & Okub, H. 2008. Application of plant growth regulators on the parthenocarpic fruit development in Teasle Gourd (Kakrol, Momordica dioica Roxb.). Journal-Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, 53(1): 39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5109/10067
Russell, D.S. 1992. Double fertilization. International Review of Cytology, 140: 357-388. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7696(08)61102-X
SAS Institute Inc. 1999. SAS Procedure guide, Version 9.1. Cary. NC.
Serrani, J.C, Fos M, Atare´ S.A. & García-Martínez, J.L, 2007. Effect of gibberellin and auxin on seedless fruit growth induction in the cv. Micro-Tom of tomato. The Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 26: 211- 221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-007-9014-7
Siti Aisyah, Y. & Wan Zaliha, W.S. 2020. The effect of different types of plant growth regulators in developing parthenocarpic Melon Manis Terengganu and improving its postharvest quality, Transaction of Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology, 27: 101-106.
Talon, M., Zacarias, L. & Primo-Mil1o, E. 1992. Gibberellins and seedless ability in developing ovaries of seedless mandarins. Plant Physiology, 99: 1575-1581. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.99.4.1575
Tiwari A, 2011. Seedless fruit development in Capsicum annuum (Ph.D). Wageningen University.
Vivian-Smith, A. & Kultunowm, A.M. 1999. Genetic analysis of growth-regulator-induced parthenocarpy in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 121: 437-452. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.121.2.437
Wan Zaliha, W.S. 2009. Regulation of fruit colour development, quality and storage life of ‘Cripps Pink’ apples with deficit irrigation and plant bioregulators (Ph.D). Curtin University of Technology.
Wan Zaliha, W.S. & Singh, Z. 2009. Fruit quality and postharvest performance of 'Cripps Pink' apple in relation to withholding irrigation. Acta Horticulturae, 877: 147-154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.877.12
Wan Zaliha, W.S., Syazwani, M., Yusnita, H. and Zuraida, A.R. 2014. Effect of plant growth regulators in developing seedless roselle calyx. Transaction of Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology, 22: 34-37.
Wan Zaliha, W.S & Norsyuhada, J. 2015. Effect of different concentrations of auxin and gibberellins in developing seedless roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) fruit and postharvest quality. Journal of Tropical Plant Physiology, 7: 26-35.
Watanabe, M., Segawa, H., Murakami, M., Sagawa, S. & Komori, S. 2008. Effects of plant growth regulators on fruit set and fruit shape of parthenocarpic apple fruits. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 77(4): 350-357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.77.350