• NURHAZRIATI MANSHOR chool of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia
  • NURUL FARIZAH AZUDDIN School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia
  • MASRATUL HAWA MOHD School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia
  • NIK MOHD IZHAM MOHAMED NOR School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia
  • LATIFFAH ZAKARIA School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia


Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium venenatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium kyushuense, highland areas, mycotoxin


Fusarium isolates from highland areas in Malaysia were mostly recovered from two species of grasses, Elyhordeum montanense and Paspalum conjugatum. The isolates were grouped into four morphological groups.  Based on TEF-1α sequences, morphotype 1 isolates were molecularly identified as F. graminearum species complex, morphotype 2 as F. venenatum, morphotype 3 as F. avenaceum and morphotype 4 as F. kyushuense.   Restriction analysis of the Intergenic Spacer region showed high levels of genetic diversity of isolates in F. graminearum species complex and F. venenatum. For mycotoxin analysis, only F. avenaceum and F. kyushuense produced beauvericin and moniliformin (0.869 & 0.321 µg/kg, respectively). Zearalenone was produced by 32 isolates of F. graminearum species complex (0.002 – 0.437 µg/kg), two isolates of F. venenatum (0.006 - 0.014 µg/kg) and F. kyushuense  (0.006 µg/kg). Only F. avenaceum isolate produced fumonisin B1 (0.001 µg/kg).  The present study indicates the occurrence of Fusarium species commonly reported in highland areas in Malaysia where the weather is cooler and the temperature is lower than in the lowland areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of phylogenetic species within F. graminearum species complex, F. venenatum, F. avenaceum and F. kyushuense in Malaysia.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Akita, M., Lehtonen, M.T., Koponen, H., Marttinen, E.M. & Valkonen, J.P. 2011. Infection of the Sunagoke moss panels with fungal pathogens hampers sustainable greening in urban environments. Science of the Total Environment, 409(17): 3166–3173. DOI:

Andrews, R.L. & Freestone, C.S. 1972. A Geography of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore. 2nd Ed. George Philip and O’Neil Pty Ltd. pp. 204.

Aoki, T. & O’Donnell, K. 1998. Fusarium kyushuense sp. nov. from Japan. Mycoscience, 39(1). DOI:

Appel, D.J. & Gordon, T.R. 1995. Intraspecific variation within populations of Fusarium oxysporum based on analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA. Experimental Mycology, 19(2): 120-128. DOI:

Backhouse, D. 2014. Global distribution of Fusarium graminearum, F. asiaticum and F. boothii from wheat in relation to climate. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 139 (1): 161–173. DOI:

Chen, S., Wei, S., Yuan, H. & Yan, X. 2022. First report of Fusarium Wilt of Gerbera Daisy caused by Fusarium kyushuense in China. Plant Disease, Advance online publication. DOI:

Desjardins, A.E. 2006. Fusarium mycotoxins: Chemistry, Genetics and Biology. APS Press, St Paul.

Edel, V., Steinberg., C., Avelange, I., Lagurre, G.& Alabouvette, C. 1995. Comparison of three molecular methods for the characterization of Fusarium oxysporum strains. Phytopathology, 85(5): 579-585. DOI:

Geiser, D.M., del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, M., Kang, S., Makalowska, I., Veeraraghavan, N., Ward, T.J., Zhang, N., Kuldau, G.A. & O’Donnell, K. 2004. Fusarium-ID v. 1.0: A DNA sequence database for identifying Fusarium. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110(5-6): 473-479. DOI:

Gerlach, W. & Nirenberg, H. 1982. The genus Fusarium-a pictorial atlas. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land-u. Forstwirtsch. Berlin-Dahlem. DOI:

Gordon, W.L. 1960. The taxonomy and habitats of Fusarium species from tropical and temperate regions. Canadian Journal of Botany, 38(4): 643-658. DOI:

Goswami, R.S. and Kistler, H.C. 2004. Heading for a disaster : Fusarium graminearum on cereal crops. Molecular of Plant Pathology, 5(6): 515-525. DOI:

Inch, S.A. & Gilbert, J. 2003. Survival of Gibberellazeae in Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels. Plant Disease, 87(3): 282-287. DOI:

Jimenez, M. & Mateo, R. 1997. Determination of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium isolates from banana fruits by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 778(1-2): 363-372. DOI:

Latiffah, Z. & Chua, H.N. 2013. Endophytic Fusarium spp. from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). Tropical Life Sciences Research, 24(2): 85–90.

Lee J., Chang I.Y., Kim H., Yun S.H., Leslie J.F. & Lee Y.W. 2009. Genetic diversity and fitness of Fusarium graminearum populations from rice in Korea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(10): 3289-3295. DOI:

Lehtonen, M.T., Marttinen, E.M., Akita, M. & Valkonen, J.P.T. 2012. Fungi infecting cultivated moss can also cause diseases in crop plants. Annals of Applied Biology, 160(3): 298–307. DOI:

Leslie, J.F., Zeller, K.A., Logrieco, A., Mule,` G., Moretti A. & Ritieni, A. 2004. Species diversity and toxin production by strains in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from native prairie grasses in Kansas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(4): 2254–2262. DOI:

Leslie, J. F. & Summerell, B. A. 2006. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. DOI:

Ma, N., Abdul Haseeb, H., Xing, F., Su, Z., Shan, L. & Guo, W. 2019. Fusarium avenaceum : A toxigenic pathogen causing ear rot on maize in Yunnan Province, China. Plant Disease, 103(6): 1424. DOI:

Munimbazi, C. & Bullerman, L.B.1998. Highperformance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of moniliformin in corn. Journal of AOAC International, 81(5): 999–1004. DOI:

Nelson, P.E., Plattner, R.D., Shackelford, D.D. & Desjardins, A.E. 1992. Fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium species other than F. moniliforme in section Liseola and by some related species. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 58(3): 984–989. DOI:

Nirenberg, H.I. 1995. Morphological differentiation of Fusarium sambucinum Fuckel sensu strict, F. torulosum (Berk. & Curt.) Nirenberg comb. nov. and F. venenatum Nirenberg sp. nov. Mycopathologia, 129(3): 131-141. DOI:

O’Donnell, K., Kistler, H.C., Cigelnik, E. & Ploetz, R.C. 1998a. Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: Concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(5): 2044–2049. DOI:

O’Donnell, K., Cigelnik, E., & Casper, H.H. 1998b. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological, and mycotoxin data support reidentification of the Quorn mycoprotein fungus as Fusarium venenatum. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 23 (57-67): 57–67. DOI:

O’Donnell, K., Ward, T., Aberra, D., Kistler, H.C., Aoki, T., Orwig, N., Kimura. M., Bjørnstad, Å. & Klemsdal, S.S. 2008. Multilocus genotyping

and molecular phylogenetics resolve a novel head blight pathogen within the Fusarium graminearum species complex from Ethiopia. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 45(11): 1514–1522. DOI:

O’Donnell, K., Kistler, C., Tacke, B.K. & Casper, H.H. 2000. Gene genealogies reveal global phylogeography structure and reproductive isolation among lineages of Fusarium graminearum, the fungus causing wheat scab. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(14): 7905-7910. DOI:

O’Donnell, K., Ward T.J., Geiser D.M., Kistler H.C. & Aoki, T. 2004. Genealogical concordance between mating type locus and seven other nuclear genes supports formal recognition of nine phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium graminearum clade. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 41(6): 600–623. DOI:

Okorski, A., Pszczółkowska, A., Markuszewski, B., Olszewski, J., Sięda, M., Makowczenko, K., Jastrzebski, J. & Paukszto, L. 2020. First report of a Fusarium wilt of black currant caused by Fusarium avenaceum in North-Eastern Poland. Plant Disease, 104 (2): 593. DOI:

Ooi, J-B. 1976. Peninsular Malaysia. Longman Group Limited, London.

Phan, H. 2006. Fusarium Species Associated with Tropical Grasses in Australia (Ph.D). The University of Sydney.

Polat, Z., Gültekin, M.A., Palacıoğlu, G., Akçay, M. & Bayraktar, H. 2022. First report of Fusarium avenaceum causing branch canker on pear in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. DOI:

Postic, J., Cosic J., Vrandecic, K., Jurkovic, D., Saleh, A.A. & Leslie, J.F. 2012. Diversity of Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in Croatia. Journal of Phytopathology, 160(2): 76–81. DOI:

Przemieniecki, S., Tomasz, K. & Korzekwa, K. 2015. Chemotypes and geographic distribution of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Environmental Biotechnology, 10(2): 45-54. DOI:

Reynolds, R., Hammond, J.C., Smith, F. & Tempest, S. 2008. Weather. DK Publishing, New York. pp. 288.

Rigorth, K.S., Finckh, M.R. & Šišić, A. 2021. First Report of Fusarium venenatum causing foot and root rot of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Germany. Plant Disease, 105 (6): 1855. DOI:

Rohlf, F.J. 2000. NTSYS-pc numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, version 2.1., USAExeter Publishing Limited, Setauket, New York.

Sampietro, D.A., Marin, P., Iglesias, J., Presella, D.A., Vattuone, M.A., Catalan, C.A.N. & Gonzalez, J.M.T. 2010. A molecular strategy for rapid diagnosis of toxigenic Fusarium species associated to cereal grains from Argentina. Fungal Biology, 114(1): 74-81. DOI:

Sampietro, D.A., Díaz, C.G., Gonzalez, V., Vattuone, M.A., Ploper, L.D., Catalan, C.A., Ward, T.J. 2011. Species diversity and toxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum complex isolates from maize fields in northwest Argentina. International Journal of Food Microbioogy, 145(1): 359–364. DOI:

Sánchez Márquez, S., Bills, G.F. & Zabalgogeazcoa, I. 2008. Diversity and structure of the fungal endophytic assemblages from two sympatric coastal grasses. Fungal Diversity, 33: 87–100.

Sarver, B., Ward, T., Gale, L., Broz, K., Kistler, H.C., Aoki, T., Nicholson, P., Carter, J. & O’Donnell., K. 2011. Novel Fusarium head blight pathogens from Nepal and Louisiana revealed by multilocus genealogical concordance. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 48(12): 1096 –1107. DOI:

Starkey, D.E., Ward, T.J., Aoki, T., Gale, L.R., Kistler, H.C., Geiser, D.M., Suga, H., Tóth, B., Varga, J. & O’Donnell, K. 2007. Global molecular surveillance reveals novel Fusarium head blight species and trichothecene toxin diversity. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 44(11): 1191–1204. DOI:

Summerell, B.A., Laurence, M.H., Liew E.C.Y. & Leslie, J.F. 2010. Biogeography and phylogeography of Fusarium: a review. Fungal Diversity, 44(1): 3-13. DOI:

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(10): 2731-2739. DOI:

Wang, H.C., Wang, M.S., Xia, H.Q., Yang, S.J., Guo, Y.S., Xu, D.Q., Li, W.H., Xiang, Y., Shang, S.H. & Shi, J.X. 2013. First report of Fusarium wilt of tobacco caused by Fusarium kyushuense in China. Plant Disease, 97(3): 424. DOI:

Wang, J.-H., Li, H.-P., Zhang, J.-B., Wang, B.-T. & Liao, Y.-C. 2014. First report of Fusarium maize ear rot caused by Fusarium kyushuense in China. Plant Disease, 98(2): 279. DOI:

Wang, N., Lu, B.H., Yang, L.N., Wang X., Yang, C., Liu, L.P., Zhan,g Y. J., Gao, J. & Wang, N. 2017. Fusarium avenaceum causing fruit rot on Rubusidaeus in Jilin Province, China. Plant Disease, 101 (6): 1037. DOI:

Walsh, J.L., Laurence, W.H., Liew, E.C.Y., Sangalang, A.E., Burgess, L.W., Summerell, B.A. & Petrovic, T. (2010). Fusarium: two endophytic novel species from tropical grasses of northern Australia. Fungal Diversity, 44(1): 149-159. DOI:

Yli-Mattila, T., Gagkaeva, T., Ward, T. J., Aoki, T., Kistler, H. C. & O’Donnell, K. 2009. A novel Asian clade within the Fusarium graminearum species complex includes a newly discovered cereal head blight pathogen from the Russian Far East. Mycologia, 101(6): 841–852. DOI:

Yoder, W.T. & Christianson, L.M. 1998. Speciesspecific primers resolve members of Fusarium section Fusarium. Taxonomic status of the dibble “Quorn” fungus reevaluated. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 23(1): 68-80. DOI:

Zhang, Y.P., Ma, L.L., Yang X.M., Wang J.H., Qu S.P., Xu, F. & Wang, L.H. 2016. First report of bulb rot of Allium giganteum caused by Fusarium avenaceum in China. Plant Disease, 100(11): 2335. DOI:



How to Cite

MANSHOR, N. ., AZUDDIN, N. F. ., MOHD , M. H. ., MOHAMED NOR, N. M. I. ., & ZAKARIA, L. . (2022). CHARACTERIZATION AND MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS OF Fusarium spp. FROM HIGHLAND AREAS IN MALAYSIA. Malaysian Applied Biology, 51(3), 89–106.



Research Articles