EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT COOKING METHODS AND TIME INTERVALS ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GOLDEN PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima)
Keywords:Pumpkin, cooking method, cooking time, physico-chemical properties, antioxidant, β-carotene
Effect of different cooking methods with different cooking time on the chemical, physical and antioxidant composition of golden pumpkin (Cucurbitae maxima) was evaluated. Pumpkin flesh has been treated with different cooking methods, which were boiling, steaming and stir-frying at different cooking time (5 and 10 minutes). Chemical analysis showed there was no significant difference (p>0.05) detected for all treatments except for the fat content in stir-fried sample. Colour analysis, which was measured using tristimulus colorimeter showed decreasing of lightness (L*) in all treated samples compared to fresh sample. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity was based on the evaluation of free-radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay). Total carotenoids were measured using spectrophotomer by comparing with β-carotene as the standard. Among treated samples, total phenolic content was found the highest in steamed sample. Heat treatment was found to affect the antioxidant activity in all treated samples, as the percentage of DPPH inhibition was slightly lower than fresh sample. Surprisingly, β-carotene was found to be slightly higher in steamed sample compared
to other cooking methods and fresh sample. This study showed that different cooking methods gave some affect to the available antioxidant properties in golden pumpkin.
AOAC, 2010. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition, Revision 3, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
Azizah, A.H., Wee, K.C., Azizah, O. & Azizah, M. 2009. Effect of boiling and stir frying on total phenolics, carotenoids and radical scavenging activity of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschato). Journal of Food Research Journal, 16: 45-41.
Caner, C. & Cansiz, O. 2007. Effectiveness of chitosan-based coating in improving shelf-life of eggs. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87: 227- 232.
Carvalho, L.M.J.D., Smiderle, L.D.A.S.M., Carvalho, J.L.V.D., Cardoso, F.D.S.N. & Koblitz, M.G.B. 2014. Assessment of carotenoids in pumpkins after different home cooking conditions. Food Sciences and Technology, 34(2): 58-63.
Chipurura, B., Muchuwei, M. & Manditseraa, F. 2010. Effect of thermal treatment on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of some vegetables. Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2: 93-100.
Choo, W.S., Yap, J.Y. & Chan, S.Y. 2014. Antioxidant properties of two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and the effect of blanching and boiling on them. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agriculture Science, 37(1): 121-131.
D’Evoli, L., Lombardi-Boccia, G. & Lucarini, M. 2013. Influence of heat treatments on carotenoid content of cherry tomatoes. Foods, 2: 352-363.
Fernández-García, E., Carvajal-Lérida, I., JarénGalán, M., Garrido-Fernández, J., Pérez-Gálvez, A. & Hornero-Méndez, D. 2012. Carotenoids bioavailability from foods: from plant pigments to efficient biological activities. Food Research International, 46(2): 438-450.
Ghidurus, M., Turtoi, M., Boskou, G., Niculita, P. & Stan V. 2010. Nutritional and health aspects related to frying. Romanian Biotechnological Letter, 15: 5675- 5681.
Gliemmo, M.F.M.E., Latorre, L.N. Gerschenson & Campos, C.A. 2009. Color stability of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, Duchesne ex Poiret) puree during storage at room temperature: Effect of pH, potassium sorbate, ascorbic acid and packaging material. LWT-Food Sci. Technol, 42: 196-201.
Gokoglu, N., Yerlikaya, P. & Cengiz, E. 2004. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and mineral contents of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chemistry, 84(1): 19-22.
Hwang, E.S., Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M. & Bowen, P.E. 2012. Effects of heat treatment on the carotenoid and tocopherol composition of tomato. Journal of Food Science, 77(10): 1109-1114.
Ismail, A., Marjan, Z.M. & Foong, C.W. 2004. Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chemistry, 87(4): 581-586.
Itle, R.A. & Kabelka, E.A. 2009. Correlation between L*a*b* color space values and carotenoid content in pumpkin and squash (Cucurbita spp.) HortScience Journal, 44(3): 633-637.
Juániz, I., Ludwig, I.A., Huarte, E., Pereira-Caro, G., Moreno-Rojas, J.M., Cid, C. & De-Peña, M.P. 2016. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables. Food Chemistry, 197: 466-473.
Loy, J.B. 2011. Variability in carotenoid content and profiles in Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata squash. In: The 2011 American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference September 23-30, Waikoloa, United States.
Markovic, M., Mülleder, U. & Neunteufl, H. 2002. Carotenoids content of different varieties of pumpkin. Journal of. Food Composition and Analysis, 15: 633-638.
Murador, D.N., da Cunha, D.T. & de Rosso, V.V. 2014. Effects of cooking techniques on vegetable pigments: A meta-analytic approach to carotenoid and anthocyanin levels. Food Research International, 65: 177-183.
Nicoli, M.C., Anese, M. & Parpinel, M. 1999. Influence of processing on the antioxidant properties of fruit and vegetables. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 10(3): 94-100.
Panglossi, H.V. 2006. Leading Edge Antioxidants Research. New York. Nova Science Publisher Inc. Pp. 45-47.
Podsedek, A. 2007. Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: A review, Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology, 40: 1-11.
Rock, C.L., Lovalvo, J.L., Emenhise, C., Ruffin, M.T., Flatt, S.W. & Schwartz, S.J. 1998. Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw rather than in processed carrots and spinach in women. Journal of Nutrition, 128: 913-916
Sengül, H., Surek, E. & Erdil, N.D. 2014. Investigating the effects of food matrix and food components on bioaccessibility of pomegranate (Punica granatum) phenolicsand anthocyanins using an in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Food Research International, 62: 1069-1079.
Shekhar, T.C. & Anju, G. 2014. Antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging method of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Leaves. American Journal of Ethnomedicine, 1(4): 244-249.
Turkmen, N., Sari, F.Y. & Velioglu, S. 2005. The effect of cooking methods on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chemistry, 93: 713-718.
Yuan, Y., Gao, Y., Zhao, J. & Mao, L. 2008. Characterization and stability evaluation of β-carotene nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization under various emulsifying conditions. Food Research International, 41(1): 61-68.
Zhang, D. & Hamauzu, Y. 2004. Phenolics, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of broccoli and their changes during conventional and microwave cooking. Food Chemistry, 88: 503-509.
How to Cite
Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (email@example.com). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission