Isolation and Characterization of Cellulolytic Fungi From Decomposing Rice Straws
Keywords:Biodegradation, cellulase, cellulolytic fungi, rice straws
Rice straw is an agricultural waste that is normally produced after the paddy is harvested. Rice straw, which is high in cellulose content, makes it difficult to degrade. It is burnt away by most farmers as this method saves time and labor. However, the burning of rice straws could have a serious impact on the environment and human health in general. To overcome this, biodegradation using fungi should be applied in degrading the cellulosic waste. In this study, rice straws from Bagan Serai, Perak were collected. Decomposing of rice straws was prepared by adding coffee residue, cow and chicken dung, and phosphate fertilizer. A total of 18 isolates were isolated and purified from the sample and the isolates were brought further to macroscopic by observing the morphology. Morphological and microscopic characterization using a microscope was performed where the structure of the isolate was observed and their respective genus level was deduced. Among the 18 isolates, most of them were Aspergillus. Next, cellulase screening was done using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) agar with Gram iodine staining. Isolate C7 showed the largest diameter of the halo zone at 48 h of incubation whereas isolate 4D has the most significant increase of halo zone in 24-h duration.
Abedinifar, S., Karimi, K., Khanahmadi, M. & Taherzadeh, M.J. 2009. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33(5): 828–833. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.01.003
Bolu, S.A., Elelu, R.N., Ahmed, F.E., Solaojo, K.F. Daramola, V.S. Omotosho, A.G. Atitebi, A. & Afeni, M. 2014. Effect of vitamins, amino acids and phyto-active biomolecules on Aspergillus flavus in poultry production. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 21(2):23-44 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/58342
Conesa, A., Van Den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. & Punt, P.J. 2000. Studies on the production of fungal peroxidases in Aspergillus niger. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(7): 3016–3023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.7.3016-3023.2000
Dashtban, M., Schraft, H., Syed, T.A. & Qin, W. 2010. Fungal biodegradation and enzymatic modification of lignin. International Journal Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1(1):36-50.
Gadde, B., Bonnet, S., Menke, C. & Garivait, S. 2009. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines. Environmental Pollution, 157(5): 1554–1558. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.01.004
Gupta, P.K., Sahai, S., Singh, N., Dixit, C.K., Singh, D.P., Sharma, C., Tiwari, M.K., Gupta, R.K. & Garg, S.C. 2004. Residue burning in rice-wheat cropping system: Causes and implications. Current Science, 87(12): 1713–1717.
Harun, R. & Ariff, E.E.E. 2017. The Role of Institutional Support in Malaysia’s Paddy and Rice Industry. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Agricultural Policy Articles. pp. 1–7.
Kahar, P. 2013. Synergistic effects of pretreatment process on enzymatic digestion of rice straw for efficient ethanol fermentation. Environmental Biotechnology-New Approaches and Prospective Applications, Interchopen. pp. 73-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/54949
Kausar, H., Sariah, M., Mohd Saud, H., Zahangir Alam, M. & Razi Ismail, M. 2010. Development of compatible lignocellulolytic fungal consortium for rapid composting of rice straw. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 64(7): 594–600. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.06.012
Khan, M.H., Ali, S., Fakhru'l-Razi, A. & Alam, Z. 2007. Use of fungi for the bioconversion of rice straw into cellulase enzyme. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, 42(4): 381-386. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03601230701312647
Kim, D.H., Kim, S.H., Kwon, S.W., Lee, J.K. & Hong, S.B. 2013. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23(12): 1654–1663. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1307.07071
Kogo, T., Yoshida, Y., Koganei, K., Matsumoto, H., Watanabe, T., Ogihara, J. & Kasumi, T. 2017. Production of rice straw hydrolysis enzymes by the fungi Trichoderma reesei and Humicola insolens using rice straw as a carbon source. Bioresource Technology, 233: 67-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.01.075
Lee, S., Jang, Y., Lee, Y.M., Lee, J., Lee, H., Kim, G.H. & Kim, J.J. 2011. Rice straw-decomposing fungi and their cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 21(12): 1322–1329. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1107.07022
McDonald, J.E., Rooks, D.J. & Mccarthy, A.J. 2012. Methods for the Isolation of Cellulose-Degrading Microorganisms. Methods in enzymology 510:349-374. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-415931-0.00019-7
Obi, F., Ugwuishiwu, B. & Nwakaire, J. 2016. Agricultural Waste Concept, Generation, Utilization and Management. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 35(4): 957. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v35i4.34
Ofongo, R.T.S., Ohimain, E.I. & Iyayi, E. A. 2019. Cellulase and hemicellulase activity under submerged fermentation of rice mill feed by fungi. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 4(1): 233-239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/4.1.35
Pedraza-Zapata, D.C., Sánchez-Garibello, A.M., Quevedo-Hidalgo, B., Moreno-Sarmiento, N. & Gutiérrez-Rojas, I. 2017. Promising cellulolytic fungi isolates for rice straw degradation. Journal of Microbiology, 55(9): 711-719. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-017-6282-1
Ravimannan, N., Sevvel, P. & Saarutharshan, S. 2016. Study on fungi associated with spoilage of bread. International Journal of Advanced Research. Biological Science, 3(4): 165-167.
Rogerson, C.T. & Webster, J. 1981. Introduction to Fungi. 3rd Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 165 pp.
Trinci, A.P.J. 1974. A study of the kinetics of hyphal extension and branch initiation of fungal mycelia. Microbiology, 81(1): 225-236. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-81-1-225 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-81-1-225
Zakhary, J.W., El-Mahdy, A.R., Abo-Bakr, T.M. & Tabey-Shehata, A.M.E. 1984. Cultivation and chemical composition of the paddy-straw mushroom (Volvariella volvaceae). Food Chemistry, 13(4): 265–276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(84)90090-6