EFFICACY OF ULTRAVIOLET-C IRRADIATION TO SUPPRESS FRUIT DECAY AND RETAIN THE POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus polyrhizus)
Keywords:Pitaya, fruit rot, UV-C irradiation, post-harvest quality
Dragon fruit (Hylocereus sp.) is a non-climacteric fruit with a short shelf-life and is easily susceptible to diseases. Chemical pesticides are commonly used to control disease in dragon fruit. However, the efficacy of Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at low concentrations as effective germicidal to control fruit decay and prolong the shelf-life on dragon fruit is still unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of UV-C irradiation at lower rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 kJ m-2) to control the postharvest decay and maintain the quality of dragon fruit. Results revealed that the quality of dragon fruit is dose-dependent. UV-C irradiated dragon fruits at 0.75 and 1.0 kJ m-2 were significantly reduced in fruit body decay, delayed bract yellowing, and prolonged shelf-life. These dosages synergistically slowed down the depletion of total soluble solids and fruit firmness during storage. Also, dragon fruit treated with 1.0 kJ m-2 UV-C exhibited the lowest pH value after the 6th day in storage. UV-C irradiation at this dosage indicated no significant adverse effects in titratable acidity and total water loss. These results indicated that UV-C irradiation at 1.0 kJ m-2 was effective to reduce post-harvest decay and hence prolong the post-harvest quality of dragon fruit storage under ambient conditions.
Adams, J.B. 1991. Review: Enzyme inactivation during heat processing of food stuffs. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 26(1): 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb01136.x
Artes-Hernandez, F. 2010. Low UV-C illumination for keeping overall quality of fresh cut watermelon. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 55(2): 114-120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2009.09.002
Barka, E.A., Kalantari, S., Makhlouf, J. & Arul, J. 2000. Impact of UV-C irradiation on the cell wall-degrading enzymes during ripening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit’. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 667-671. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9906174
Bintsis, T., Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, E. & Robinson, R. 2000. Existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light in the food industry-A critical review. Journal of Food Science and Agriculture, 80: 637−645. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000501)80:6<637::AID-JSFA603>3.0.CO;2-1
Bovi, G.G., Rux, G., Caleb, O.J., Herppich, W.B., Linke, M., Rauh, C. & Mahajan, P.V. 2018. Measurement and modelling of transpiration losses in packaged and unpackaged strawberries. Biosystems Engineering, 174: 1–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2018.06.012
Charles, M.T., Kalantari, S., Corcuff, R. & Arula, J. 2005. Postharvest quality and sensory evaluation of UV-treated tomato fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 682: 537–542. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.682.67
Charles, M.T., Tano, K., Asselin, A. & Arul, J. 2009. Physiological basis of UV-C induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato fruit. V. Constitutive defence enzymes and inducible pathogenesis-related proteins. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 51: 414–424. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2008.08.016
Chik C. T., Bachok S. & Baba N. 2011. Quality characteristics and acceptability of three types of pitaya fruits in a consumer acceptance test. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 3: 89-98.
Cristiano, D. F., Gustavo, H. L., Igor, da S.L., Newiton, da S. T., Jessica, F. H., Valmor, Z. & Mauríciode, O. 2021. Postharvest UV-C irradiation for fungal control and reduction of mycotoxins in brown, black, and red rice during long-term storage. Food Chemistry, 339: 1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127810
Darvishi, S., Fatemi, A. & Davari, K. 2012. Keeping quality of use of fresh 'Kurdistan' strawberry by UV-C radiation. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17(7): 826-831.
D'hallewin, G., Schirra, M., Pal, M. & Ben-Yehoshua, S. 2000. Ultraviolet C irradiation at 0.5 kJ m-2 reduces decay without causing damage or affecting postharvest quality of star ruby grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 4571-4575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000559i
Dyshlyuk, L., Babich, O., Prosekov, A., Ivanova, S., Pavsky, V. & Chaplygina, T. 2020. The effect of postharvest ultraviolet irradiation on the content of antioxidant compounds and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tomato. Heliyon, 6(1): e03288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03288
Erkan, M., Wang, C.Y. & Krizek, D.T. 2001. UV-C irradiation reduces microbial populations and deterioration in Cucurbita pepo fruit tissue. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 45(1): 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(00)00073-3
Erkan, M., Shiow, Y.W. & Chien, Y.W. 2008. Effect of UV treatment on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and decay in strawberry fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 48: 63-171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.09.028
Françoso, I. L.T., Couto, M.A.L., Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G. & Arthur, V. 2008. Physical-chemical alterations in irradiated and stored strawberries (Fragaria anassa Duch.). Food Science and Technology, 28(3): 614-619. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612008000300017
Gahan, P.B. 1999. Introduction to Plant Physiology, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.
Guimarães, I.C., Menezes, E.G.T., Abreu, P.S.D., Rodrigues, A.C., Borges, P.R.S., Batista, L.R., Cirilo, M.A. & Lima, L.C.D.O. 2013. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of raspberries (Rubus idaeus) treated with different doses of gamma irradiation. Food Science and Technology, 33(2): 316-322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612013005000040
Guerrero-Beltrán, J.A. & Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. 2004. Review: Advantages and limitations on processing foods by UV light. Food Science and Technology International, 10: 137−148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013204044359
Jalgaonkar, K., Mahawar, M.K. Bibwe, B. & Kannaujia, P. 2020. Postharvest profile, processing and waste utilization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.): A review. Food Reviews International. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2020.1742152
Kowitcharoen, L., Kammapana, L. & Srilaong, V. 2010. UV-C treatment delays chlorophyll degradation in the bract of Dragon fruit cultivar 'Vietnam'. Acta Horticulturae, 875: 105-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.875.11
Kramer, G.F., Wang, C.Y. & Conway, W.S. 1989. Correlation of reduced softening and increased polyamines levels during low-oxygen storage of 'McIntoch' apples’. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 114: 942-946.
Lado, B. & Yousef, A. 2002. Alternative food preservation technologies: Efficacy and mechanisms. Microbes and Infection, 4(4): 433–440. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(02)01557-5
Lucht, L., Blank, G. & Borsa, J. 1998. Recovery of food-borne microorganisms from potentially lethal radiation damage. Journal of Food Protection, 61: 586–590. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-61.5.586
Lurie, S. & Klein, J.D. 1990. Heat treatment of ripening apples: Differential effects on physiology and biochemistry. Physiologia Plantarum, 78:181-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1990.tb02078.x
Maharaj, R., Arul, J. & Nadeau, P. 1999. Effect of photochemical treatment in the preservation of fresh tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Capello) by delaying senescence. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 15: 13-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00064-7
Mohamed, N.T.S., Ding, P., Kadir. J. & Ghazali, H.M. 2017. Potential of UVC germicidal irradiation in suppressing crown rot disease, retaining postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of Musa AAA "Berangan" during fruit ripening’. Food Science & Nutrition, 5: 967–980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.482
Morris, S.C. & Jessup, A.J. 1994. Irradiation. In: Insect Pests and Fresh Horticultural Products: Treatments and Responses. R.E. Paull & J.W. Armstrong (Eds.). CAB International, Wallingford. pp. 163-190.
Nigro, F., Ippolito, A., Lattanzio, V., Di Venere, D. & Salerno, M. 2000. Effect of ultraviolet-c light on postharvest decay of strawberry. Journal of Plant Pathology, 82(1): 29-37.
Nimitkeatkai, H. & Kulthip, J. 2016. Effect of sequential UV-C irradiation on microbial reduction and quality of fresh cut dragon fruit. International Food Research Journal, 23(4): 1818-1822.
Nurliyana, R., Syed Zahir, I., Mustapha Suleiman, K., Aisyah, M.R. & Kamarul Rahim, K. 2010. Antioxidant study of pulps and peels of dragon fruits: A comparative study. International Food Research Journal, 17: 367-375.
Pala, C.U. & Toklucu, A.K. 2013. Microbial, physicochemical and sensory properties of UV-C processed orange juice and its microbial stability during refrigerated storage. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 50: 426-431. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.09.001
Palou, L., Smilanick, J.L. & Droby, S. 2008. Alternatives to conventional fungicides for the control of citrus postharvest green and blue moulds. Stewart Postharvest, 4(2): 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2212/spr.2008.2.2
Pan, J., Vicente, A.R., Martínez, G.A., Chaves, A.R. and Civello, P.M. 2004. Combined use of UV-C irradiation and heat treatment to improve postharvest life of strawberry fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 84(14): 1831–1838. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1894
Paull, R.E. 2014. Dragon fruit: postharvest quality-maintenance guidelines. Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.
Perkins-Veazie, P., Collins, J.K. & Howard, L. 2008. Blueberry fruit response to postharvest application of ultraviolet radiation. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 47(3): 280-285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.08.002
Punitha, V., Boyce, A.N. & Chandran, S. 2010. Effect of storage temperatures on the physiological and biochemical properties of Hylocereus polyrhizus. Acta Horticulturae, 875: 137-144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.875.16
Razali, N.A., Antunes, A.C.N., Berry, A.D. & Sargent, S.A. 2016. Postharvest storage temperature and coating effects on fruit quality of red-fleshed Pitaya (Hylocereus costarricenses). Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 129: 190-194.
Rodov, V., Ben-Yehoshua, S., Kim, J. J., Shapiro, B. & Ittah, Y. 1992. Ultraviolet illumination induces scoparone production in kumquat and orange fruit and improves decay resistance. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117(5): 788-792. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.117.5.788
Rodov, V. Ben-Yehoshua, S., Fang, D., D’hallewin, G. & Castia, T. 1994. Accumulation of phytoalexins scoparone and scopoletin in citrus fruits subjected to various postharvest treatments. Acta Horticulturae, 381: 517-525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1994.381.69
Sethu, K.M.P., Prapha, T.N. & Tharanathan, R.N. 1996. Postharvest biochemical changes associated with the softening phenomenon in Capsicum annuum fruits. Phytochemistry, 42: 961-966. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(96)00057-X
Sergio, T.F., Nham, N.T. & Mitcham, E.J. 2011. Pitaya (Pitahaya, Dragon Fruit) Recommendations for maintaining postharvest quality. Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis.
Stevens, C., Wilson, C.L., Lu, J.Y., Khan, V.A., Chalutz, E., Dro-by, S., Kabwe, M.K., Haung, Z., Adeyeye, O., Pusey, L.P., Wisniewski, M.E. & West, M. 1996. Plant hormesis induced by ultraviolet-C for controlling postharvest diseases of tree fruits. Crop Protection, 15(2): 129-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(95)00082-8
Stevens, C., Khan, V.A., Tang, A.Y. & Lu, J.Y. 1990. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on mold rots and nutrients of stored sweet potatoes. Journal of Food Protection, 53: 223–226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-53.3.223
Terry, L.A. & Joyce, D.C. 2004. Elicitors of induced disease resistance in postharvest horticultural crops: a brief review. Postharvest Biology Technology, 32: 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.09.016
Wall, M.M. & Khan, S.A. 2008. Postharvest quality of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) after X-ray irradiation quarantine treatment. Horticultural Science, 43 (7): 2115-2119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.7.2115
Zahid, N., Ali, A., Manickam, S., Siddiqui, Y. & Maqbool, M. 2012. Potential of chitosan loaded nanoemulsions to control different Colletotrichum spp. and maintain quality of tropical fruits during storage. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 113: 925–939. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05398.x
How to Cite
Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (firstname.lastname@example.org). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission