ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA)-PRODUCING, CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER
Keywords:Polyhydroxyalkanoate, bacteria, wastewater, cellulolytic
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are linear bio-esters produce in nature by certain microorganisms particularly when subjected to limited nutrients sources such as nitrogen while carbon sources are at abundance. PHA has attracted tremendous amount of attention from scientists globally due to their biodegradable property as environment-friendly alternative to petrochemical based plastics. However, the biggest drawback in using PHA is their high production cost. The aims of this study are to assess and characterise PHA-producing bacteria from municipal wastewater and compare their efficiencies in PHA production. A total of 34 out of 282 bacterial isolates from wastewater showed the ability to produce PHA using Sudan Black B staining. These isolates were then subjected to cellulase activity screen using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) agar. Two out of the 34 isolates were showed promising cellulose degrading capability and the cellulolytic activities were studied at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation respectively. The PHA production efficiencies of both isolates UiTM-E1 and UiTM-E2 were then compared using mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 1% and 2% glucose at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubations respectively. Isolate UiTM-E2 showed the highest PHA production at 36.93% of its cell-dry weight (CDW) at 48 hours incubation.
Bassi, S.A., Boldrin, A., Frenna, G. & Astrup, T.F. 2021. An environmental and economic assessment of bioplastic from urban biowaste. The example of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Bioresource Technology, 327: 124813. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124813
Bradner, J.R., Gillings, M. & Nevalainen, K.M.H. 1999. Qualitative assessment of hydrolytic activities in Antarctic microfungi grown at different temperatures on solid media. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 15(1): 131–132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008855406319
Dwivedi, R., Pandey, R., Kumar, S. & Mehrotra, D. 2020. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA): Role in bone scaffolds. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, 10: 389-392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2019.10.004
El-Liethy, M.A., Hemdan, B.A. & El-Taweel, G.E. 2018. Phenotyping using semi-automated Biolog and conventional PCR for identification of Bacillus isolated from biofilm of sink drainage pipes. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 38(5): 334-338. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2018.01.011
El-malek, F.A., Khairy, H., Farag, A. & Omar, S. The sustainability of microbial bioplastics, production and applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 157: 319-328. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.04.076
Evangeline, S. & Sridharan, T.B. 2019. Biosynthesis and statistical optimization of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) produced by Bacillus cereus VIT-SSR1 and fabrication of biopolymer film for sustained drug release. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 135: 945-958. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.163
Hastuti, U.S., Yakub, P. & Khasanah, H.N. 2014. Biodiversity of indigenous amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria in sago waste product at Susupu, North Moluccas. Journal of Life Sciences, 8: 920-924.
Kasana, R.C., Salwan, R., Dhar, H., Dutt, S. & Gulati, A. 2008. A rapid and easy method for the detection of microbial cellulases on agar plates using Gram’s iodine. Current Microbiology, 57: 503-507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-008-9276-8
Khatami, K., Perez-Zabaleta, M., Owusu-Agyeman, I. & Cetecioglu, Z. 2021. Waste to bioplastics: How close are we to sustainable polyhydroxyalkanoates production? Waste Management, 119: 374-388. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.10.008
Lopez-Cuellar, M.R., Alba-Flores, J.N., Gracida-Rodriguez, F. & Perez-Guevara, F. 2011. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with canola oil as carbon source. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 48(1): 74-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2010.09.016
Mascarenhas, J. & Aruna, K. 2017. Screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulating bacteria from diverse habitats. Journal of Global Biosciences, 6(3): 4835-4848.
Mohan, G., Johnson, R.L. & Yu, J. 2021. Conversion of pine sawdust into polyhydroxyalkanoate bioplastics. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 9(25): 8383-8392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.1c00009
Munir, S., Iqbal, S. & Jamil, N. 2015. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production using paper mill wastewater as carbon source in comparison with glucose. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 9(Spl. Edn. 1): 453-460.
Nelson, K., Muge, E. & Wamalwa, B. 2021. Cellulolytic Bacillus species isolated from the gut of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. Scientific African, 11: e00665. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00665
Raj, A., Ibrahim, V., Devi, M., Sekar, D.V., Yogesh, B.J. & Bharathi, S. 2014. Screening, optimization, and characterization of poly hydroxy alkanoates (PHA) produced from microbial isolates. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(4): 785-790.
Rawte, T. & Mavinkurve, S. 2001. Biodegradable plastics: Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 41: 233-245.
Rouch, D.A. 2021. Plastic future: How to reduce the increasing environmental footprint of plastic packaging. Working Paper No. 11, Clarendon Policy & Strategy Group, Melbourne, Australia.
Steinbüchel, A. 2001. Perspectives for biotechnological production and utilization of biopolymers: Metabolic engineering of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis pathways as a successful example. Macromolecular Bioscience, 1: 1-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/1616-5195(200101)1:1<1::AID-MABI1>3.0.CO;2-B
Teeka, J., Imai, T., Cheng, X., Reungsang, A., Higuchi, T., Yamamoto, K. & Sekine, M. 2010. Screening of PHA-producing bacteria using bio-diesel derived waste glycerol as a sole carbon source. Journal of Water and Environmental Technology, 8(4): 373-381. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2965/jwet.2010.373
Thunman H., Berdugo Vilches T., Seemann M., Maric J., Vela I.C., Pissot S. & Nguyen H.N.T. 2019. Circular used of plastic transformation of existing petrochemical clusters into thermochemical recycling plants with 100% plastics recovery. Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 22: e00124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susmat.2019.e00124
Wierckx, N., Narancic, T., Eberlein, C., Wei, R., Drzyzga, O., Magnin, A., Ballerstedt, H., Kenny, S.T., Pollet, E., Avérous, L., O’Connor, K.E., Zimmermann, W., Heipieper, H.J., Prieto, A., Jiménez, J. & Blank, L.M. 2018. Plastic Biodegradation: Challenges and Opportunities. In: Consequences of Microbial Interactions with Hydrocarbons, Oils, and Lipids: Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Steffan R. (Ed.) Springer: Switzerland. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44535-9_23-1
How to Cite
Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (email@example.com). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission