Physical and Chemical Properties of Pineapple Fruit of cv. Pada and cv. Sarawak in Response to Flowering Hormones
Keywords:artificially induced flowering, CaC2, Ethephon, NAA
Pineapple flowering can be stimulated through artificially induced flowering (AIF) to ensure year-round production. The post effect gains from AIF is currently not universally acknowledged by previous studies, therefore, this study aims to evaluate the physical and chemical fruit properties in response to different AIF practices on cv. Pada, and cv. Sarawak. The AIF was applied to 9-month-old plants with nine treatments being tested, consisting of calcium carbide (CaC2), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and ethephon at various concentrations. The fruit samples were collected at a maturity index of 5 in order to determine its physical (total fruit weight, fruit weight without crown, total fruit length, fruit length without crown, fruit diameter, peduncle length and peduncle diameter) and chemical properties (pH, total soluble solid and titratable acidity). The results showed that the total fruit weight as well as fruit weight without crown on cv. Pada and total fruit weight on cv. Sarawak were not affected by AIF treatments. The study showed a significantly higher fruit weight in T7 (low ethephon concentration) in comparison to T10 (high ethephon concentration) and T4 (NAA treatment) was recorded on cv. Sarawak. The trend of fruit length without crown on both cultivars decreased as the hormone concentration increased. The peduncle length exhibited significantly shorter in T3 (high CaC2 concentration) for cv. Pada, and T10 (high ethephon concentration) for cv. Sarawak at 30%, and 15% shorter than other treatments, respectively. In fruit chemical properties, TSS and TA on cv. Pada showed a significant difference, this particular result may have been influenced by an external factor such as the environmental conditions during the fruit ripening stage due to differing harvesting periods between the treatments. Overall, the study suggests that the AIF treatments may affect some of the physical and chemical fruit properties either via the direct or indirect response toward AIF.
Barker, D.L., Arantes, S.D., Schmildt, E.R., Ventura, J.A., Arantes, L.D.O., Silva, J.F.D., Neto, B.C., Buffon, S.B. & Fontes, P.S.F. 2020. Performance of’ Vitória’ pineapple in response to different types of shoots and ages of floral induction. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 55: 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-3921.pab2020.v55.01598
Bawa, M.H., Eleke, P.N. & Abubakar, F. 2020. Effect of calcium carbide on concentration of trace elements in fruits grown within kaduna metropolis. International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications, 9(1): 8-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7753/IJSEA0901.1003
Bhowmick, N., Suresh, C.P., Paul, P.K. & Pal, R.K. 2011. Effect of ethrel on fruiting characteristics of pineapple under Cooch Behar district of West Bengal. Journal of Crop and Weed, 7(2): 210.
Butrat, P. & Wangmuang, A. 2004. Effects of flowering chemicals application on flowering and fruit quality of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr. cv. Phuket). Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 26(3): 339-345.
Cano-Medrano, R. & Darnell, R.L. 1997. Cell number and cell size in parthenocarpic vs. pollinated blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) fruits. Annals of Botany, 80(4): 419-425. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1997.0462
Chan, Y.K. 1997. Performance and stability of new pineapple hybrids in g x e trials in Malaysia. Acta Horticulturae, 425: 201-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.425.22
Chan. Y.K. 2008. Pineapple (Ananas comosus). In: Breeding horticultural crops @ Mardi. Y.K. Chan, S.L. Tan and J. Siti Hawa (Eds.). MARDI, Serdang. pp. 207-235.
Cunha, G.A.P. 2005. Applied aspects of pineapple flowering. Bragantia, 64(4): 499-516. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87052005000400001
Cunha, J.M., Freitas, M.S.M., de Carvalho, A.J.C., Caetano, L.C.S., Vieira, M.E., Peçanha, D.A., Lima, T.C., Jesus, A.C.D. & Pinto, L.P. 2021. Pineapple yield and fruit quality in response to potassium fertilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 44(6): 865-874. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2021.1871755
Dass, H.C., Randhawa, G.S. & Negi, S.P. 1975. Flowering in pineapple as influenced by ethephon and its combinations with urea and calcium carbonate. Scientia Horticulturae, 3(3): 231-238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(75)90005-9
Dayondon, R.R. & Valleser, V.C. 2018. Effects of urea and calcium-boron applied at flower bud stage on ‘MD2’ pineapple fruit. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 8(6): 322-328. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.6.2018.p7842
Deka, B.C., Saikia, J. & Sharma, S. 2005. Standardization of maturity indices of ‘Kew’ pineapple. Acta Horticulturae, 682: 2215-2220. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.682.302
Department of Agriculture. n.d. Varieties registered for national crop list. URL http://pvpbkkt.doa.gov.my/NationalList/Search.php (accessed 12.25.2019).
des Gachons, C.P., Leeuwen, C.V., Tominaga, T., Soyer, J.P., Gaudillère, J.P. & Dubourdieu, D. 2004. Influence of water and nitrogen deficit on fruit ripening and aroma potential of Vitis vinifera L cv Sauvignon blanc in field conditions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85: 73-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1919
Dorey, E., Fournier, P., Léchaudel, M. & Tixier, P. 2016. A statistical model to predict titratable acidity of pineapple during fruit developing period responding to climatic variables. Scientia Horticulturae, 210: 19-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2016.07.014
Etienne, A., Génard, M., Lobit, P., Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D. & Bugaud, C. 2013. What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64(6): 1451-1469. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert035
Fassinou Hotegni, V.N., Lommen, W.J.M., Agbossou, E.K. & Struik, P.C. 2014. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality within crops results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5: 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00670
Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority. n.d. Standard and grade specification: Fruit. URL https://www.fama.gov.my/en/web/pub/spesifikasi-gred-dan-piawaian1 (accessed 12.25.2019).
Food and Agriculture Organization. 2021. Land and water (Pineapple). URL http://www.fao.org/land-water/databases-and-software/crop-information/pineapple/en/ (accessed 03.10.2022).
García-Tejero, I., Romero-Vicente, R., Jiménez-Bocanegra, J.A., Martínez-García, G., Durán-Zuazo, V.H. & Muriel-Fernández, J.L. 2010. Response of citrus trees to deficit irrigation during different phenological periods in relation to yield, fruit quality, and water productivity. Agricultural Water Management, 97(5): 689-699. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.12.012
Guichard, S., Bertin, N., Leonardi, C. & Gary, C. 2001. Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon fluxes. Agronomie, 21(4): 385-392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2001131
Hansen, H. & Grossmann, K. 2000. Auxin-induced ethylene triggers abscisic acid biosynthesis and growth inhibition. Plant Physiology, 124(3): 1437-1448. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.124.3.1437
Hassan, A., Othman, Z. & Siriphanich, J. 2011. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.). In: Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical. E.M. Yahia (Ed.), Woodhead Publishing. pp. 194-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857092618.194
Julius, I.P., Tseng, H.H. & Lin, H.L. 2017. Low temperature effect on flower and fruit development of Tainung No 17 pineapple. Acta Horticulturae, 1166: 131-136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1166.18
Kamarul Zaman, A.A., Shamsudin, R. & Mohd Adzahan, N. 2016. Effect of blending ratio on quality of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice blends. International Food Research Journal, 23: 101-106.
Khan, N.A., Mir, M.R., Nazar, R. & Singh, S. 2008. The application of ethephon (an ethylene releaser) increases growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen accumulation in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under high nitrogen levels. Plant Biology, 10(5): 534-538. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2008.00054.x
Kim, Y., Seo, C.W., Khan, A.L., Mun, B.G., Shahzad, R., Ko, J.W., Yun, B.W. & Lee, I.J. 2018. Exo-ethylene application mitigates waterlogging stress in soybean (Glycine max L.). BMC Plant Biology, 18(1): 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-018-1457-4
Li, Y.H., Wu, Q.S., Huang, X., Liu, S.H., Zhang, H.N., Zhang, Z. & Sun, G.M. 2016. Molecular cloning and characterization of four genes encoding ethylene receptors associated with pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) flowering. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 1-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00710
Li, Y.H., Wu, Y.J., Wu, B., Zou, M.H., Zhang, Z. & Sun, G.M. 2011. Exogenous gibberellic acid increases the fruit weight of ‘Comte de Paris’ pineapple by enlarging flesh cells without negative effects on fruit quality. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33(5): 1715-1722. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-010-0708-2
Liu, C. & Liu, Y. 2012. Impacts of shading in field on micro-environmental factors around plants and quality of pineapple fruits. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10: 741-745.
Liu, S., Zhang, X., Zhang, Y., Li, Y. & Zhu, Z. 2020. Forced flowering of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Tainon 16) in response to ethephon with or without calcium carbonate. IOP Publishing, 46: 1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/461/1/012015
Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board. n.d. Manual tanaman nanas - Tanah mineral. URL https://www.mpib.gov.my/en/publication/ (accessed 11.20.2019).
Malip, M. 2011. A new formulation for the flowering of Maspine pineapple. Acta Horticulturae, 902: 257-261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.902.27
Mohammed Selamat, M., Masaud, R., Zahariah, M.N., Fatkhiah, A.M., Noor, Y.M. & Hamid, I.A. 2005. Efficacy of different inductants on the flowering, yield and fruit quality of Josapine pineapple on peat soil. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, 33(1): 9-15.
Norman, J.C. 1976. Influence of slip size, deslipping and decrowning on the “Sugarloaf” pineapple. Scientia Horticulturae, 5: 321-329. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(76)90127-8
Norman, J.C. 1977. Chemical regulation of growth, flowering and fruiting in ‘Sugarloaf’ pineapple. Scientia Horticulturae, 7(2): 143-151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(77)90054-1
Paull, R.E. & Chen, C.C. 2018. Postharvest physiology, handling, and storage. In: The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses. G.M. Sanewski, D.P. Bartholomew and R.E. Paull (Eds.). CABI. pp. 295-323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781786393302.0295
Pérez-Pérez, J.G., Robles, J.M. & Botía, P. 2009. Influence of deficit irrigation in phase III of fruit growth on fruit quality in “lane late” sweet orange. Agricultural Water Management, 96(6): 969-974. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.01.008
Prigge, M. & Gurierrez-Soto, M.V. 2014. Pineapple photosynthesis and leaf sap pH as a surrogate of CAM performance in the field. A Research Advance. Pineapple News, 21: 18-23.
Py, C., Lacoeuilhe J.J. & Teisson, C. 1987. The Pineapple, Cultivation and Uses. G.P. Maisonneuve & Larose, Paris.
Rodríguez-Escriba, R.C., Rodríguez, R., López, D., Lorente, G.Y., Pino, Y., Aragón, C.E., Garza, Y., Podesta, F.E. & González-Olmedo, J.L. 2015. High light intensity increases the CAM expression in “MD-2” micro-propagated pineapple plants at the end of the acclimatization stage. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6(19): 3109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2015.619303
Rohazrin, A.R., Khairul, F.A.R. & Miswan, J. 2016. Package of farm mechanisation technologies for the production of pineapple at mineral soil. Buletin Teknologi MARDI, 9: 139-147
Sam Nureszuan, S.S., Noorasmah, S. & Shimala, D.R. 2021. Flowering synchronization in pineapples (Ananas comosus L. Merr): A review. Journal of Applied Horticulture, 23(2): 206-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37855/jah.2020.v22i03.50
Saradhuldhat, P. 2005. Organic Acid Metabolism and Accumulation During Pineapple Fruit Growth and Development (Ph.D). University of Hawai’i.
Shamsul Alam, M., Siddique Alam, M., Saha, S.R., Dhar, M. & Altaf Hossain, M. 2010. Effect of growth regulators on off-season production of Pineapple (cv. honey queen) in hill slope of Chittagong hill tracts. Bangladesh Journal of Life Sciences, 22: 97-101.
Silva, M.D.A. & Caputo, M.M. 2012. Ripening and the use of ripeners for better sugarcane management. In: Crop management: Cases and tools for higher yield and sustainability. F.R. Marin (Ed.). InTech Open. pp. 3-24.
Silveira, L.K., Pavão, G.C., dos Santos Dias, C.T., Quaggio, J.A. & Pires, R.C.M. 2020. Deficit irrigation effect on fruit yield, quality and water use efficiency: A long-term study on Pêra-IAC sweet orange. Agricultural Water Management, 231: 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106019
Siti Zubaidah, H., Mawiyah, M., Ramasamy, S., Rashidi, O. & Jamilah, S.Y. 2018. Effect of seedling size and flowering time on fruit quality, secondary metabolite production and bioactivity of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. var. ‘Yankee’] fruit. Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 14(1): 102-108.
Solomon George, D., Razali, Z. & Somasundram, C. 2016. Physiochemical changes during growth and development of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr. cv. Sarawak). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 18: 491-503.
Spironello, A., Quaggio, J.A., Teixeira, L.A.J., Furlani, P.R. & Sigrist, J.M.M. 2004. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 26: 155-159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452004000100041
Sun, Z.Y., Zhang, T.J., Su, J.Q., Chow, W.S., Liu, J.Q., Chen, L.L., Li, W.H., Peng, S.L. & Peng, C.L. 2015. A novel role of ethephon in controlling the noxious weed Ipomoea cairica (Linn.) Sweet. Scientific Reports, 11372(5): 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11372
Tan, K.M. & Wee, Y.C. 1973. Influence of size of pineapple slips on plant growth, fruit weight and quality in graded and mixed plantings. Tropical Agriculture, 50(2): 139-142.
Torres, E., Giné-Bordonaba, J. & Asín, L. 2021. Thinning flat peaches with ethephon and its effect on endogenous ethylene production and fruit quality. Scientia Horticulturae, 278: 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2020.109872
Usha Kumari, Jha, K.K., Sengupta, S., Misra, S., Tiwary, A.K., Lal, H.C. & Kumar, K. 2020. Studies on different growth regulators and stage of application on inflorescence induction and development of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) var. Queen. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 8(6): 1093-1095. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i6p.10906
Valleser, V.C. 2018. Planting density influenced the fruit mass and yield of ‘Sensuous’ pineapple. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 8(7): 113-119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.7.2018.p7919
Wang, Y., Liu, L., Wang, Y., Tao, H., Fan, J., Zhao, Z. & Guo, Y. 2019. Effects of soil water stress on fruit yield, quality and their relationship with sugar metabolism in ‘Gala’ apple. Scientia Horticulturae, 258: 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2019.108753
Wee, Y.C. & Rao, A.N. 1979. Development of the inflorescence and crown of Ananas comosus after treatment with acetylene, NAA, and ethephon. American Journal of Botany, 66(4): 351-360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1979.tb06235.x
Yang, S.F. 1969. Ethylene evolution from 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. Plant Physiology, 44(8): 1203-1204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.44.8.1203
Yu, Y.B. & Yang, S.F. 1979. Auxin-induced ethylene production and its inhibition by aminoethyoxyvinylglycine and cobalt ion. Plant Physiology, 64(6): 1074-1077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.64.6.1074
How to Cite
Any reproduction of figures, tables and illustrations must obtain written permission from the Chief Editor (firstname.lastname@example.org). No part of the journal may be reproduced without the editor’s permission