Compositional Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Indigenous Fruit of Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco


  • Halifah Afizah Ismail Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia BintuluSarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak
  • Shiamala Devi Ramaiya Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak; Institut Ekosains Borneo, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, 97008 Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Muta Harah Zakaria Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, SelangorDarul Ehsan, Malaysia


Artocarpus, indigenous fruit, product development, phytochemical, utilization


Artocarpus odoratissimus, locally known as terap, is native to Borneo and holds great potential for providing nutrition and income to rural communities. The fruit's flesh is consumed raw, while the seeds are typically steamed and used in local dishes. The by-products, such as the pedicel and peel, often go to waste. This indigenous species has yet to be fully explored for its nutritional and phytochemical properties. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate the nutritional compositions and phytochemical properties of A. odoratissimus fruit. The nutritional and phytochemical properties of A. odoratissimus vary across its parts. The edible flesh and seeds exhibited higher carbohydrate content at 12.16±1.01% and 9.96±0.76%, respectively. Seeds possessed significantly higher crude protein (21.89±0.54%) and fat (18.23±0.20%). In contrast, the non-edible parts of the peel (5.57±0.11%) and pedicel (5.79±0.41%) exhibit considerably greater ash content than their edible counterparts in the flesh (3.87±0.42%) and seeds (0.62±0.29%). Potassium (905.61±18.89 to 2001.51±13.00 mg 100 g-1) was the most abundant in A. odoratissimus fruits, followed by calcium (578.30±7.00 to 1300.97±23.51 mg 100 g-1). The flesh is primarily composed of non-reducing sugars, including fructose (26.70±0.70 g 100 g-1) and glucose (25.38±0.45 g 100 g-1), with a notable amount of vitamin B1 (11.07±0.31 mg 100 g-1). The seed oil contains essential fatty acids, with a significant proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (57.10%), mainly nervonic acid (45.32%). The pedicel, often considered a by-product, exhibits relatively high levels of phytochemical properties in comparison to the edible portions. The current findings support the ethnobotanical uses of A. odoratissimus by local communities, underscoring its growing importance in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.


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15-12-2023 — Updated on 18-12-2023


How to Cite

Ismail, H. A. ., Ramaiya, S. D., & Zakaria, M. H. (2023). Compositional Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Indigenous Fruit of Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco. Malaysian Applied Biology, 52(5), 187–203. (Original work published December 15, 2023)