Comparisons on Growth Performance, Survivability, Organoleptic Qualities and Economic Feasibility of Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer) Reared in Different Salinities


  • Mohammed Noorfaiz Yusof Higher Institution Centre of Excellence, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Norfazreena Mohd Faudzi Higher Institution Centre of Excellence, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Nur Aziemah Jasni Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Sabah, 88997 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Elexson Nillian Faculty of Resource and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Shigeharu Senoo UMS-Kindai Aquaculture Development Centre, Kindai University, Shirahama, Wakayama, 649-2211, Japan
  • Fui Fui Ching Higher Institution Centre of Excellence, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


Asian seabass, economic analysis, growth performance, lates calcarifer, organoleptic qualities, salinity


Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer is among the most cultured aquaculture species in the Southeast Asian region due to its remarkable tolerance for a diverse environmental fluctuation. In aquaculture, salinity has a direct influence on many biological, physiological and market value of any cultured fish. This study investigated the impacts of different salinities (0, 15, & 30 ppt) on Asian seabass growth, body indices, feeding performance, organoleptic qualities, and production cost for 85 days. Ninety fish were reared in 700-liter tanks equipped with recirculation system with 10 fish each tank. They were fed with commercial marine feed.  The findings revealed Asian seabass in 15 ppt attained significantly higher (p<0.05) body weight (470.40 ± 41.16 g), total length (31.51 ± 0.81 cm), total feed intake (309.28 ± 35.66 g/fish) and daily feed intake (3.64 ± 0.42 g/fish/day) compared to 30 ppt but remained insignificant with 0 ppt. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in terms of body weight gain, specific growth rate, body indices, and feed conversion ratio of Asian seabass when reared in different salinities. The organoleptic qualities showed that rearing Asian seabass in different salinities has no significant effect (p>0.05) on odour, appearance, texture, and flavour score. However, the overall acceptance score of Asian seabass reared in 30 ppt (3.53 ± 0.22) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to 15 ppt but remained insignificant with 0 ppt. Economically, Asian seabass cultured in 15 ppt yielded the most optimal conditions for profitable production. The findings conclude 15 ppt can promotes enhanced   growth performance and profitability, while 0 ppt and 30 ppt can promote consumer acceptance positively.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Mohammed Noorfaiz Yusof, Higher Institution Centre of Excellence, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Postgraduate student 

Fui Fui Ching, Higher Institution Centre of Excellence, Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Borneo Marine Research Institute

Deputy Director ( Research and Innovation)


Alhazzaa, R., Bridle, A.R., Nichol, P.D. & Carter, C.G. 2011. Up-regulated desaturase and elongase gene expression promoted accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but not long-chain PUFA in Lates calcarifer, a tropical euryhaline fish, fed a stearidonic acid-and γ-linoleic acid-enriched diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(15): 8423-8434.

Anand, G., Srivastava, P.P., Varghese, T. & Gupta, S. 2022. Rearing in hypersaline inland ground saline water affect growth and osmoregulatory responses of common carp (Linnaeus 1758).

Andersen, L.K., Abernathy, J., Berlinsky, D.L., Bolton, G., Booker, M.M., Borski, R.J., Brown, T., Cerivo, D., Ciaramella, M., Clark, R.W., Frinsko, M.O., Fuller, S.A., Gabel, S., Green, B.W., Herbst, E., Hodson, R.G., Hopper, M., Kenter, L.W., Lopez, F., McGinty, A.S., Nash, B., Parker, M., Pigg, S., Rawless, S., Riley, K., Turano, M.J., Webster, C.D., Weirich, C.R., Won, E., Curry Woods III, L., Reading, B.J. & StriperHub. 2021. The status of striped bass, Morone saxatilis, as a commercially ready species for US marine aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(3): 710-730.

Anil, M.K., Santhosh, B., Jasmine, S., Saleela, K.N., George, R.M., Kingsly, H.J. & Rao, G.S. 2010. Growth performance of the seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) in sea cage at Vizhinjam Bay along the south-west coast of India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 57(4): 65-69.

Aswathy, N. & Imelda, J. 2018. Economic viability of cage farming of Asian seabass in the coastal waters of Kerala. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6(5): 368-371.

Bernardino, R.J., & Fernandes, C. 2016. Growth performance for European sea bass fingerlings, Dicentrarchus labrax, reared at different salinities. In: IMMR International Meeting on Marine Research. Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Peniche.

Boeuf, G. & Payan, P. 2001. How should salinity influence fish growth? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 130(4): 411-423.

Catacutan, M.R. & Coloso, R.M. 1997. Growth of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, fed varying carbohydrate and lipid levels. Aquaculture, 149: 137-144.

Dawood, M.A., Gewaily, M.S. & Sewilam, H. 2022. The growth performance, antioxidative capacity, and histological features of intestines, gills, and livers of Nile tilapia reared in different water salinities and fed menthol essential oil. Aquaculture, 554: 738122.

Du, X., Zhang, W., He, J., Zhao, M., Wang, J., Dong, X. & Miao, S. 2022. The impact of rearing salinity on flesh texture, taste, and fatty acid composition in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Foods, 11(20): 3261.

Gammanpila, M. & Singappuli, M.S. 2014. Economic viability of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) small scale aquaculture systems in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 17.

Ghosh, S., Megarajan, S., Ranjan, R., Dash, B., Pattnaik, P., Edward, L. & Xavier, B. 2016. Growth performance of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) stocked at varying densities in floating cages in Godavari Estuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 61(3): 146-149.

Hamed, S.S., Jiddawi, N.S. & Poj, B. 2016. Effect of salinity levels on growth, feed utilization, body composition and digestive enzymes activities of juvenile silver pompano Trachinotus blochii. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4(6): 279-283.

Haque, M.A., Hossain, M.I., Uddin, S.A. & Dey, P.K. 2019. Review on distribution, culture practices, food and feeding, brood development and artificial breeding of Seabass, Lates calcarifer (BLOCH 1790): Bangladesh perspective. Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries, 6(3): 405-414.

Idris, S.M., Noordin, W.N.M., Manah, F.O. & Hamzah, A. 2022. Toward systematic breeding of Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790), in Malaysia: Status, challenges and prospects for future development. Asian Fisheries Science, 35: 1-12.

Imsland, A.K., Foss, A., Gunnarsson, S., Berntssen, M.H., FitzGerald, R., Bonga, S.W. & Stefansson, S.O. 2001. The interaction of temperature and salinity on growth and food conversion in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Aquaculture, 198(3-4): 353-367.

Insivitawati, E., Hakimah, N. & Chudlori, M.S. 2022. Effect of temperature, pH, and salinity on body weight of Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer) at different stockings. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing, 1036(1): 012117.

Masli, A., Senoo, S., Kawamura, G. & Fui, C.F. 2014. Effects of different light intensities on fry growth, survival and cannibalism control of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(5): 45-52.

Mathew, G. 2009. Taxonomy, identification and biology of Seabass (Lates calcarifer).

Mozanzadeh, M.T., Safari, O., Oosooli, R., Mehrjooyan, S., Najafabadi, M.Z., Hoseini, S.J. & Monem, J. 2021. The effect of salinity on growth performance, digestive and antioxidant enzymes, humoral immunity and stress indices in two euryhaline fish species: Yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Aquaculture, 534: 736329.

Muhd-Faizul, H.A.H., Kua, B.C. & Leaw, Y.Y. 2012. Caligidae infestation in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, Bloch 1790 cultured at different salinity in Malaysia. Veterinary Parasitology, 184(1): 68-72.

Mylonas, C.C., Pavlidis, M., Papandroulakis, N., Zaiss, M.M., Tsafarakis, D., Papadakis, I.E. & Varsamos, S. 2009. Growth performance and osmoregulation in the shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa) adapted to different environmental salinities. Aquaculture, 287(1-2): 203-210.

Nor, N.M., Yazid, S.H.M., Daud, H.M., Azmai, M.N.A. & Mohamad, N. 2019. Costs of management practices of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch, 1790) cage culture in Malaysia using stochastic model that includes uncertainty in mortality. Aquaculture, 510: 347-352.

Othman, A.R., Kawamura, G., Senoo, S. & Fui, C. 2015. Effects of different salinities on growth, feeding performance and plasma cortisol level in hybrid TGGG (tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus) juveniles. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(3): 15-20.

Pethiyagoda, R. & Gill, A.C. 2012. Description of two new species of sea bass (Teleostei: Latidae: Lates) from Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 3314(1): 1-16.

Purba, E.P., Ilza, M. & Leksono, T. 2016. Study Penerimaan Konsumen terhadap Steak (Fillet) Ikan Kakap Putih Flavor Asap. Jurnal Online Mahasiswa, 3(2):1-11.

Rahi, M.L., Azad, K.N., Tabassum, M., Irin, H.H., Hossain, K.S., Aziz, D., Moshtagi, A. & Hurwood, D.A. 2021. Effects of salinity on physiological, biochemical and gene expression parameters of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon): Potential for farming in low-salinity environments. Biology, 10(12): 1220.

Sarower, M.G., Hasanuzzaman, A.F.M., Biswas, B. & Abe, H. 2012. Taste producing components in fish and fisheries products: A review. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, 2(2): 113-121.

Shapawi, R. 2020. Growth performance and organoleptic quality of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutattus♀× Epinephelus lanceolatus♂) fed palm-oil based diets at grow-out stage. Sains Malaysiana, 49(7): 1567-1576.

Shui, C., Shi, Y., Hua, X., Zhang, Z., Zhang, H., Lu, G. & Xie, Y. 2018. Serum osmolality and ions, and gill Na+/K+-ATPase of spottedtail goby Synechogobius ommaturus (R.) in response to acute salinity changes. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 3(2): 79-83.

Silva, T.S. & Piana, P.A. 2020. Production of tilapia in biofloc with different salt condictions: An evaluation of body composition and organoleptic properties. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 46(1).

Sintha, L. 2020. Importance of Break-EVEN analysis for the micro, small and medium enterprises. International Journal of Research-GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(6): 212-218.

Sutthi, N., & Thaimuangphol, W. 2020. Effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on growth performances, body composition and blood chemistry of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) under different salinity conditions. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 19(3): 1428-1446.

Szűcs, I., Tikász, I.E., Fehér, M. & Stündl, L. 2018. Testing for consumer preferences of smoked Asian sea bass (Barramundi) filet products in Hungary. Cogent Business & Management, 5(1): 1432158.

Ucar, Y., Özogul, Y., Özogul, F., Durmuş, M., & Köşker, A.R. 2020. Effect of nisin on the shelf life of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) fillets stored at chilled temperature (4±2 °C). Aquaculture International, 28: 851-863.

Vij, S., Purushothaman, K., Gopikrishna, G., Lau, D., Saju, J.M., Shamsudheen, K.V., Kumar, K.V., Basheer, V.S., Gopalakrishnan, A., Hossain, M.S., Sivasubbu, S., Scaria, V., Jena, J.K., Ponniah, A.G. & Orbán, L. 2014. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species. Frontiers in Marine Science, 1: 30.

Vij, S., Purushothaman, K., Sridatta, P.S.R. & Jerry, D.R. 2020. Transcriptomic analysis of gill and kidney from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) acclimated to different salinities reveals pathways involved with euryhalinity. Genes, 11(7): 733.

Wijayanto, D., Bambang, A.N., Nugroho, R.A., Kurohman, F. & Nursanto, D.B. 2021. Effect of salinity on growth and benefit-cost ratio of Asian seabass reared in artificial media. AACL Bioflux, 14(5):3000-3005.

Windarto, S., Hastuti, S., Subandiyono, S., Nugroho, R.A. & Sarjito, S. 2019 Growth performance of the seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch, 1790) using the floating net cages system. Sains Akuakultur Tropis, 3(1): 56-60.

Woo, N.Y. & Kelly, S.P. 1995. Effects of salinity and nutritional status on growth and metabolism of Spams sarba in a closed seawater system. Aquaculture, 135(1-3): 229-238.


31-03-2024 — Updated on 01-07-2024


How to Cite

Yusof, M. N., Mohd Faudzi, N., Jasni, N. A. ., Nillian, E., Senoo, S. ., & Ching, F. F. (2024). Comparisons on Growth Performance, Survivability, Organoleptic Qualities and Economic Feasibility of Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer) Reared in Different Salinities. Malaysian Applied Biology, 53(1), 127–136. (Original work published March 31, 2024)



Research Articles

Funding data