Nutritional Composition and Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Cocoa Pod Husk using Response Surface Methodology


  • Nurulain Hasya Azhar Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Suhaili Shamsi Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Siti Salwa Abd Gani Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Arief Huzaimi Md Yusof Malaysia Cocoa Board, Cocoa Innovative and Technology Centre, Lot 12621 Nilai Industrial Area, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia


Cocoa pod husk, Flavonoids, Heavy metals, Nutritional composition, Response surface methodology (RSM)


Cocoa pod husks (CPH) are usually disposed of from the farm, and this can lead to environmental problems, such as being a breeding ground for the cocoa pod borer. This study aimed to determine the nutritional composition and concentration of ultra-trace elements (As, Cd, Pb & Hg) in CPH. The optimization of the extraction conditions of CPH in response to the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) by using response surface methodology (RSM) was also conducted. The findings show that the total carbohydrate and crude fibre content of CPH are high (35.75% & 35.47%, respectively) while having low levels of moisture, ash, crude protein, and fat (11.86%. 8.60%, 7.46% & 0.86, respectively). In addition, the results demonstrate that CPH has a low content of toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, and Hg (0.0046 mg/kg, 0.0028 mg/kg, 0.0011 mg/kg & 0.00003 mg/kg respectively) which is considered as a safe range. The optimized extraction conditions were a solvent concentration of 93.64%, a temperature of 38.18°C, and a time of 73.64 min. The actual value of the flavonoid content of CPH obtained was 1038.94 µmoL Fe2+/L, which is acceptable compared to the predicted value of 1039.40 µmoL Fe2+/L. The discovery from this research represents a significant contribution towards finding cocoa pod husk from a plentiful, affordable, and feasible source, which could potentially be used in various fields such as pharmaceutical, medical, and nutraceuticals.


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How to Cite

Azhar, N. H., Zaidan, U. H., Shamsi, S., Abd Gani, S. S., & Md Yusof, A. H. (2023). Nutritional Composition and Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Cocoa Pod Husk using Response Surface Methodology. Malaysian Applied Biology, 52(6), 127–135.



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