Flavonoid Content of Phaleria macrocarpa Fruit and Its Proximate Compositions



  • Siti Salwa Abd Gani Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Najat Nabilah Noor Ezzuddin Halal Products Research Institute, Putra Infoport, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Izuan Effendi Halmi Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Alyaa Nurathirah Abd Halim Halal Products Research Institute, Putra Infoport, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


antioxidants, falvonoids, FTIR, moisture content, Phaleria macrocarpa, phenol


Flavonoids are one of the compounds in phenolic compounds in fruits. Flavonoids have been documented to modulate or modify lipid peroxidation, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. Flavonoids also influence anti-inflammatory action, anti-tumour, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-viral, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal effects. In this research, flavonoid content in P. macrocarpa fruits was determined, as well as its proximate compositions. To extract flavonoids in the fruit, P. macrocarpa fruits were extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method using aqueous as a solvent. Total flavonoid content in P. macrocarpa fruit extract was 89.89 ± 3.71 mg QE/100 mL. Proximate analyses were conducted to determine the fruit’s moisture content, ash content, dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, and crude essential oil. Results obtained for proximate composition were 9.45 ± 2.67% (crude protein), 21.633 ± 1.17 (fibre), and 5.605 ± 0.88 (essential oil). Moisture content in this fruit was 88.401 ± 0.749%, the dry matter was 10.96%, and the ash content was 6.33 ± 3.72%. FTIR analysis shows the extract’s functional spectra of phenol, alkane, alkene, and alkyne groups.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Altaf, R., Asmawi, M.Bin., Dewa, A., Sadikun, A. & Umar, M. 2013. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extracts. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 7(1): 73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.112853

Anggraini, T. & Lewandowsky, P. 2015. The exotic plants of Indonesia : Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa), Sikaduduak (Melastoma malabathricum Linn) and Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) as potent antioxidant sources. International Journal On Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology, 5(2): 115–118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.5.2.496

Azmir, J., Zaidul, I.S.M., Sharif, K.M., Uddin, M.S., Jahurul, M.H.A., Jinap, S. & Mohamed, A. 2014. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of highly unsaturated oil from Phaleria macrocarpa seed. Food Research International, 65: 394–400. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.049

Datta, N., Singanusong, R., Chen, S.S., Yao, L.H., Jiang, Y.M., Shi, J. & As-barber, F.A.T.O.M. 2004. Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 59: 113–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-004-0049-7

Easmin, S., Zaidul, I.S.M., Ghafoor, K., Ferdosh, S., Jaffri, J., Ali, M.E. & Khatib, A. 2017. Rapid investigation of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Phaleria macrocarpa extracts using FTIR-ATR based fingerprinting. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 25(2): 306–315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.09.007

Fidrianny, I., Permatasari, L. & Wirasutisna, K.R. 2013. Antioxidant activities from various bulbs extracts of three kinds allium using DPPH, ABTS assays and correlation with total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid content. International Journal Research Pharmaceutical Science, 4(3): 438–444.

Kim, W.J., Veriansyah, B., Lee, Y.W., Kim, J. & Kim, J.D. 2010. Extraction of mangiferin from Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) using subcritical water. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 16(3): 425–430. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2009.08.008

Kumar, S. & Pandey, A.K. 2013. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids : An Overview. 2013.The Scientific World Journal, 2013: 162750. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/162750

Lay, M.M., Karsani, S.A., Banisalam, B., Mohajer, S., Nurestri, S. & Malek, A. 2014. Antioxidants, phytochemicals, and cytotoxicity studies on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl seeds. BioMed Research International, 2014: 410184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/410184

Lin, B.F., Chiang, B.L. & Lin, J.Y. 2005. Amaranthus spinosus water extract directly stimulates proliferation of B lymphocytes in vitro. International Immunopharmacology, 5(4): 711–722. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.12.001

Lin, J.Y. & Tang, C.Y. 2006. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables, as well as their stimulatory effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation. Food Chemistry, 101(1): 140–147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.014

Merken, H.M. & Beecher, G.R. 2000. Measurement of food flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography: A review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(3): 577–599. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990872o

Prakash, D., Gupta, C. & Sharma, G. 2012. Importance of phytochemicals in nutraceuticals. Journal of Chinese Medicine Research and Development, 1(3): 70–78.

Qian, J.Y., Liu, D. & Huang, A.G. 2004. The efficiency of flavonoids in polar extracts of Lycium chinense Mill fruits as free radical scavenger. Food Chemistry, 87(2): 283–288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.11.008

Rastaon, N. & Tuah, P.M. 2016. Quantitative Analysis of Quercetin in Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Extracts. Transaction on Science and Technology, 3: 203–208.

Ravishankar D, Salamah M, Akimbaev A, Williams, H.F., Albadawi, D., Vaiyapuri, R., Greco, F., Osborn, H. & Vaiyapuri, S. 2018. Impact of specific functional groups in flavonoids on the modulation of platelet activation. Scientific reports, 8(1): 9528. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27809-z

Wyman, C.E. 2013. Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470975831



How to Cite

Abd Gani, S. S., Noor Ezzuddin, N. N. ., Zaidan, U. H. ., Halmi, M. I. E. ., & Abd Halim, A. N. . (2023). Flavonoid Content of Phaleria macrocarpa Fruit and Its Proximate Compositions. Malaysian Applied Biology, 52(4), 119–125. https://doi.org/10.55230/mabjournal.v52i4.m024