• MUNIRAH AZMAN School of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • FAUZIAH TUFAIL AHMAD School of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia


Pumpkin peel powder, antioxidant, carotenoid, postharvest quality


The use and benefit of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) peel is still not prominent and acknowledged by many people till now. The peel which is reported to be abundant with beta-carotene are not palatable and commonly discarded. The main objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of different concentrations of pumpkin peel powder (PPP) as feed formulation on the flesh quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The following treatments were applied; commercial feed with 0% PPP (Treatment 1; T1), 2% (Treatment 2; T2); 4% (Treatment 3; T3) and 6% (Treatment 4; T4) for 3 weeks after fully fed with commercial feed for 2 weeks. The main analytical tests conducted were feed analysis, carotenoid content, drip loss, colour and texture. Carotenoid content was analysed by using spectrophotometer. The results obtain indicated that the highest concentration (6%) of pumpkin peel powder showed the highest reading of carotenoid content (p<0.05) while treatment 2 with 2% of PPP obtain the highest weight gain (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that quail feed which supplemented with higher PPP may help in producing quail flesh with antioxidant properties.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Ana, C.B.S., Kamylla, R.B.M., Pâmella, G.A.S., Lismaíra, G.C.G. & Clarissa, D. 2016. Pumpkin peel flour (cucurbita maxima l.) characterization and technological applicability. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 4(5): 327-333.

Anosa, G.N. & Okoro, O.J. 2011. Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musaparadisiaca root in chickens. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43: 245-248.

Azevedo-Meleiro, C.H. & Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. 2007. Quantitative and qualitative differences in carotenoids composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55: 4027-4033.

Azzi, A. & Stocker, A. 2000. Vitamin E: nonantioxidant roles. Progress in Lipid Research, 39(3): 231-55.

Bianchi , M., Fletcher, D.L. & Smith, D.P. 2005. Physical and functional properties of whole and ground pale broiler breast meat. Poultry Science, 84: 803-808.

Bollengier-Lee, S., Mitchell, M.A., Utomo, D.B., Williams, P.E.V. & Whitehead, C.C. 1998. Influence of high dietary vitamin E supplementation on egg production and plasma characteristics in hens subjected to heat stress. British Poultry Science, 39: 106-112.

Botsoglou, N., Papagergiou, G., Nikolakakis, I., Florou-Paneri, P., Giannenas, I., Dotas, V. & Sinapsis, E. 2004. Effect of dietary dried tomato pulp on oxidative stability of Japanese quail meat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(10): 982-2988.

Castromán, G., Del Puerto, M., Ramos, A., Cabrera, M.C. & Saadoun A. 2013. Organic and Conventional Chicken Meat Produced In Uruguay: Colour, pH, Fatty Acids Composition and Oxidative Status. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 1(2): 12-21.

Dutta, D. Chaudhuri & Chakraborty, R. 2005. Structure, health benefits, antioxidant property and processing and storage of carotenoids. African Journal Biotechnology, 4: 1510-1520.

Daniela, B., Gabriele, L., Evelina, G., Florentina, I. & Tamara, M. 2014. Method for Determination of Provitamin A in Meat Based Samples. Scientific Bulletin Series F. Biotechnologies, 18: 97-100.

Gallo, M., Ferracane, R. & Naviglio, D. 2012. Antioxidant addition to prevent lipid and protein oxidation in chicken meat mixed with supercritical extracts of Echinacea angustifolia. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 72: 198-204

Gevrekci, Y., Oguz, I., Aksit, M., Onenc, A., Ozdemir, D. & Altan, O. 2009. Heritability and variance component estimates of meat quality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal Veterinary Animal Science, 33: 89-94.

Grau, A., Guardiola, F., Grimpa, S., Barroeta, A.C. & Codony, R. 2001. Oxidative stability of dark chicken meat through frozen storage: influence of dietary fat and alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation. Poultry Science, 80(11): 1630-1642.

Imik, H., Atasever, M.A., Koc, M., Atasever, M.A. & Ozturan, K. 2010. Effect of dietary supplementation of some antioxidants on growth performance, carcass composition and breast meat characteristics in quails reared under heat stress. Czech Journal Animal Science, 55: 209- 220.

Inborr, J. & Lignell, A. 1997. Effect of feeding astaxanthin-rich algae meal (Haematococcus pluvialis) on performance and carotenoid concentration of different tissues of broiler chickens: in Proceedings XIII WPSA Conference on Poultry Meat Quality in Poznan, Poland. Pp: 39 -43

Kandlakunta, B., Rajendran, A. & Thingnganing, L. 2008. Carotene content of some common (cereals, pulses, vegetables, spices and condiments) and unconventional sources of plant origin. Food Chemistry, 106(1): 85-89.

Karadas, F., Surai, P.F., Sparks, N.H. & Grammenidis, E. Effects of maternal dietary supplementation with three sources of carotenoids on the retinyl esters of egg yolk and developing quail liver. British Poultry Science, 47(2): 200-208.

Kim, M.Y., Eun, J.K., Young-Nam, K., Changsun, C. & Bog-Hieu, L. 2012. Comparison of the chemical compositions and nutritive values of various pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae) species and parts. Nutrition Research and Practice, 6(1): 21-27.

Kurz, C., Carle, R. & Schieber, A. 2008. HPLC-DADMSn characterization of carotenoids from apricots and pumpkins for the evaluation of fruit product authenticity. Food Chemistry, 110(2): 522-530.

Lábaque, M.C., Kembro, J.M., Luna, A. & Marin, R.H. 2013. Effects of thymol feed supplementation on female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) behavioural fear response. Animal Feed Science Technology, 183: 67-72.

Lin, C.H. & Chen, B.H. 2005. Stability of carotenoids in tomato juice during storage. Food Chemistry, 90: 837-846.

Lonergan, S.M., Huff-Lonergan, E., Rowe, L., Kuhlers, D. & Jungst, S. 2001. Selection for lean growth efficiency in duroc pigs influences pork quality. Journal of Animal Science, 79: 2075-2085.

Lucia, M.J.C., Patrícia, B.G. Ronoel, L.O.G., Sidney, P., Pedro, H.F.M., José, L.V.C., Marília, R.N., Ana, C.L.N., Ana, C.R.A.V. & Semíramis, R.R.R. 2012. Total carotenoid content, α-carotene and β-carotene, of landrace pumpkins (Cucurbita moschata Duch): A preliminary study. Food Research International, 47(2): 337-340.

Mancini, R.A. & Hunt, M.C. 2005. Current research in meat color. Meat Science, 71:100-121.

Oguz, I., Aksit, M., Onenc, A., Gevrekci, Y., Ozdemir, D. & Altan, O. 2004. Genetic variability of meat quality characteristics in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). European Poultry Science, 68: 176-181.

Panda B. & Mohapatra, S.C. 1989. Poultry Production. Publication Information Division. 1st Edition. ICAR, New Delhi. 152 pp.

Pokorný, J. 2007. Are natural antioxidants betterand safer- Than synthetic antioxidants? European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109(6): 629-642.

Rahman, A.N.M.A., Hoque, M.N., Talukder, A.K. & Das, Z.C. 2016. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Veterinary World, 9(9): 940-947.

Ri, C.S., Jiang, X.R., Kim, M.H., Wang, J., Zhang, H.J., Wu, S.G., Bontempo, V. & Qi, G.H. 2017. Effects of dietary oregano powder supplementation on the growth performance, antioxidant status and meat quality of broiler chicks. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 16(2): 246-252.

Sahin, K. & Kucuk, O. 2001. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on performance, digestion of nutrients, and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under chronic heat stress (34°C). Journal Animal Physiology Animal Nutrition, 85: 335-342.

Sahin, N., Orhan, C., Tuzcu, M., Sahin, K. & Kucuk, O. 2008. The Effects of Tomato Powder Supplementation on Performance and Lipid Peroxidation in Quail. Poultry Science, 87: 276-283.

Shahidi, F. & Zhong, Y. 2010. Novel antioxidants in food quality preservation and health promotion. European Journal Lipid Science Technology, 112: 930-940.

Shirzadegan, K. & Falahpour, P. 2014. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture. Open Veterinary Journal, 4(2): 69-77.

Saini, R.K., Shang, X.M., Ko, E.Y., Choi, J.H. & Keum, Y.S. 2016. Stability of carotenoids and tocopherols in ready-to-eat baby-leaf lettuce and salad rocket during low-temperature storage. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 65(5): 1-7.

Sathiya, M.K. & Anjali, E.K. 2016. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Pumpkin Wastes. Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences, 6(3): 336-344.

Sheikhzadeh, N., Makhloughi, A.R., Nofouzi, K. & Tukmechi, A. 2016. Influence of diets enriched with two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on growth performance, innate immune system and disease resistance in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture Research, 47: 2691-2695.

Singh. J., Sukla, S., Vinti, S. & Rai, A.K. 2016. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Cucurbit Fruits Extracted with Different Solvents. Journal Nutritional Food Science, 6: 6.

Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Kawabata, K., Mori, H., Kakumoto, M. & Satoh, K. 1997. Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring flavonoids, diosmin and hesperidin. Carcinogenesis, 18: 957-965.

Waldenstedt, L., Inborr, J., Hansson, I. & Elwinger, K. 2003. Effects of astaxanthin-rich algal meal (Haematococcus pluvalis) on growth performance, caecal campylobacter and clostridial counts and tissue astaxanthin concentration of broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science Technology, 108(1-4): 119-132.

Wilkanowska, A. & Kokozynski, D. 2011. Comparison of slaughter value in Pharaoh quail of different ages. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 12(1): 145-154.

Winnie, D.A. & Dirinck, P. Studies on vitamin E and meat quality. 1996. Effect of feeding high vitamin E levels on chicken meat quality. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(7): 1691-1696.

Zhou, T., Kong, Q., Huang, J., Dai, R. & Li, Q. 2007. Characterization of nutritional components and utilization of pumpkin. Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, 2: 313-321.



How to Cite

AZMAN, M. ., & AHMAD, F. T. . (2019). THE EFFECT OF PUMPKIN PEELS (Cucurbita maxima) ON THE QUALITY OF JAPANESE QUAIL FLESH. Malaysian Applied Biology, 48(1), 185–191. Retrieved from