• AIZAT MOHD-RAZALI Institue of Medical Science Technology, University Kuala Lumpur, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • MARIAM TAIB School of Fundamental Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • MASOUKI MURNI Centre for Fundamental and Liberal Education, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • AZIZ AHMAD School of Fundamental Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia


Coconut, protein, fermentation, histidine, methionine, threonine


Protein is the most expensive and important nutrient component in feed formulation. An alternative protein source should be employed to reduce the dependency on fish meal. Limited reports are available regarding the bioconversion of coconut residue derived-carbohydrate to soluble protein. The objective of this study was to determine the soluble protein and amino acid contents of coconut-residue after solid-state-fermentation by Aspergillus awamori. The complete randomised design (CRD) with three parameters; the inoculum-size (10%, 20%, and 30%), incubation temperature (30°C, 35°C and 40°C) and salt concentration (1x, 2x, 3x) were tested. Response surface method (RSM) was used to optimise the fermentation conditions. As a result, fermentation was increased and showed that the soluble protein content of the coconut-residue, to be 1.13-folds higher than the control. RSM analysis displayed that the best fermentation conditions comprised of 21.29% of inoculum size, 34.39°C of incubation temperature and 2.7-times of salt concentration after nine days of fermentation. Essential amino acids
namely; histidine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, as well as three non-essential amino acids like the aspartic acid, serine and proline were significantly improved in the fermented coconut-residue. The current findings suggested that fermented coconut residue is a feasible source of protein and amino acids in feed formulation.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Alriksson, B., Hörnberg, A., Gudnason, A.E., Knobloch, S., Arnason, J. & Johannsson. R. 2014. Fish feed from wood. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 48(9–10): 843-848.

Bamdad, F., Dokhani, S., Keramat, J. & Zareie, R. 2009. The impact of germination and in vitro digestion on the formation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from lentil proteins compared to whey proteins. Engineering and Technology, 36-46.

Barrios-Gonzalez, J. 2012. Solid-state fermentation: Physiology of solid medium, its molecular basis and applications. Process Biochemistry, 47(2): 175-185.

Bodin, N., Delfosse, G., Thu, T.T.N., Boulengé, E.L., Abboudi, T., Larondelle, Y. & Rollin, X. 2012. Effects of fish size and diet adaptation on growth performances and nitrogen utilization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) juveniles given diets based on free and/or protein-bound amino acids. Aquaculture, 356- 357: 105-115.

Bradford, M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochemistry, 72: 248-254.

Cowieson, A.J., Acamovic, T. & Bedford, M.R. 2006. Phytic acid and phytase: implications for protein utilization by poultry. Poultry Science, 85(5): 878-85.

Denina, I., Paegle, L., Prouza, M., Holátko, J., Pátek, M., Nesvera, J. & Ruklisha, M. 2010. Factors enhancing L-valine production by the growthlimited L-isoleucine auxotrophic strain Corynebacterium glutamicum. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 37(7): 689 -699.

El-Sayed, A.F.M. 1999. Alternative dietary protein sources for farmed. Aquaculture, 179: 149-168.

Farinas, C.S., Vitcosque, G.L., Fonseca, R.F. Neto, V.B. & Couri, S. 2011. Modelling the effects of solid state fermentation operating conditions on endoglucanase production using an instrumented bioreactor. Industrial Crops and Products, 34: 1186-1192.

F.A.O. 2016. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Rome. p. 200

Francis, G., Makkar, H.P.S. & Becker, K. 2001. Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture, 199: 197-227.

Gaylord, T.G. & Barrows, F.T. 2009. Multiple amino acid supplementations to reduce dietary protein in plant-based rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss feeds. Aquaculture, 287(1-2): 180-184.

Hinrikson, H.P., Hurst, S.F. de Aquirre, L. & Morrison, C.J. 2015. Molecular methods for identification of Aspergillus species. Medical Myxcology, 43: S129-S137.

Hossain, F., Onyango, B., Adelaja, A., Schilling, B. & Hallman, W. 2002. Uncovering factors influencing public perceptions of food biotechnology. Food Policy Institute. Working Paper 0602-003

Kies, A.K., De Jonge, L.H., Kemme, P.A. & Jongbloed, A.W. 2006. Interaction between protein, phytate, and microbial phytase. In vitro studies. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(5): 1753-1758.

Loeffler, J., Hebart, H., Cox, P., Flues, N., Schumacher, U. & Einsele, H. 2001. Nucleic acid sequence-based amplication of Aspergillus RNA in blood samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(4): 1626-1629.

Moo-Young, M., Xu, J., Wang, L., Ridgway, D. & Gu, T. 2000. Increased heterologous protein production in Aspergillus niger fermentation through extracellular proteases inhibition by pelleted growth. Biotechnology Progress, 16: 222-227.

Moorthy, M. & Viswanathan, K. 2009. Digestibility and feeding value of coconut meal for white leghorn layers. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 6(5): 196-203.

Pickardt, C., Neidhart, S., Griesbach, C., Dube, M., Knauf, U., Kammerer, D.R. & Carle, R. 2009. Food hydrocolloids optimisation of mild-acidic protein extraction from defatted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(7): 1966-1973.

Punt, P.J., Zegers, N.D., Busscher, M., Pouwels, P.H. & van den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. 1991. Intracellular and extracellular production of proteins in Aspergillus under the control of expression signals of the highly expressed Aspergillus nidulans gpdA gene. Journal of Biotechnology, 17: 19-33.

Ramachandran, S., Patel, A.K., Nampoothiri, K.M., Francis, F., Nagy, V., Szakacs, G. & Pandey, A. 2004. Coconut oil cake, a potential raw material for the production of a-amylase. Bioresource Technology, 93: 169-174.

Riche, M., Trottier, N.L., Ku, P.K. & Garling, D.L. 2001. Apparent digestibility of crude protein and apparent availability of individual amino acids in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed phytase pre-treated soybean meal diets. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 25: 181-194.

Sadasivam, S. & Manickam, A. 1996. Biochemical Methods. New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, ISBN: 81-224-0976-8.

Samson, R.A., Noonim, P., Meijer, M., Houbraken, J. & Frisvad, J.C. 2007. Diagnostic tools to identify black Aspergilli. Studies in Mycology, 59: 129-145.

Smarason, B.O., Alrikson, B. & Johannsson, R. 2018. Safe and sustainable protein sources from the forest industry – The case of fish feed. Trends in Food Science & Technology

Vogel, H.J. 1956. A convenient growth medium for Neurospora crassa. Microbial Genetics Bulletin, 13: 42-44.

Yin, S., Tang, C., Wen, Q., Yang, X. & Li, L. 2008. Functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate/: Effect of highpressure treatment. In Vitro, 110: 938-945.

Zhang, X., Zhou, J., Fu, W., Li, Z., Zhong, J., Yang, J. & Xiao, L. 2010. Response surface methodology used for statistical optimization of jiean peptide production by Bacillus subtilis. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 13(4).



How to Cite

MOHD-RAZALI, A. ., TAIB, M. ., MURNI, M. ., & AHMAD, A. . (2019). BIOCONVERSION OF COCONUT-RESIDUE TO SOLUBLE PROTEIN BY Aspergillus awamori. Malaysian Applied Biology, 48(1), 241–249. Retrieved from