An Updated Review of Ethnobotany, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth


  • Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Dania Najiha Hasnu Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Abdullah Khan Faculty of Pharmacy, Quest International University, Ipoh 30250, Malaysia
  • Ching Siang Tan Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Bama Menon Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Venkateshan Narayanan Arulmigu Kalasalingam College of Pharmacy, Krishan Koil – 626126, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Khang Wen Goh Faculty of Data Science and Information Technology, INTI International University, Nilai, Malaysia
  • Asmuni Mohd Ikmal Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Noraini Talip Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Poonguzhali Subramanian School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, 47500, Malaysia
  • Long Chiau Ming School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Sunway City, Malaysia


biodiversity, drug, herbal medicine, natural product, species richness, medicine


There are a myriad of potential medicinal plants worldwide. Researchers have found some, while others are still unexplored. Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (family: Lamiaceae), commonly known as the cat's whiskers plant, is a well-known herbal plant with many medicinal uses. All the parts of O. stamineus, such as the leaves, stems, flowers, and seeds, have their uses. More than 140 pure compounds were identified and isolated from different extracts of O. stamineus, particularly leaf extracts and stem oils. Flavonoids are the most abundant phytoconstituents found in O. stamineus leaf extract. Several pharmacological activities have been studied and validated using extracts as well as pure compounds. Multiple phytoconstituents attributed to these pharmacological activities such as diuretics, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiepileptic, etc., have been discovered. Considering the purported benefits of O. stamineus, the present review critically evaluates and discusses the pharmacognosy, taxonomy, ethnobotany, pharmacological activities, and phytochemistry of O. stamineus and provides updated information.


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How to Cite

Kalusalingam, A. ., Hasnu, D. N., Khan, A., Tan, C. S., Menon, B., Narayanan, V., Goh, K. W., Mohd Ikmal, A. ., Talip, N., Subramanian, P., & Ming, L. C. (2024). An Updated Review of Ethnobotany, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. Malaysian Applied Biology, 53(1), 1–18.



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