The Incorporation of Coconut Water and Banana Homogenate in The Regeneration of Fig (Ficus carica L.) cv. Violette de Solliès


  • Xin Jie Lui School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • Dahmendra Sriskanda School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • Wan Ting Ling School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • Sreeramanan Subramaniam School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • Bee Lynn Chew School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia


banana homogenate, coconut water, Ficus carica, organic additives, shoot induction


The common fig (Ficus carica L.) is from the family of Moraceae and is commonly cultivated for its fruits, which are well-known for their exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties. The addition of organic additives functions to supply carbon sources and other essential vitamins, minerals, and natural growth regulators to support the growth of explants. The present study aims to assess the effects of coconut water and banana homogenate in the regeneration of Ficus carica cv. Violette de Solliès (VDS). In vitro shoot, explants were cultured in full-strength MS medium without sucrose but with 1.0 mg/L BAP and different concentrations of coconut water and banana homogenate. Results indicated that MS media with 200 mL/L coconut water resulted in the highest number of induced shoots (3.03 ± 0.122) and shoot height (1.005 ± 0.022 cm) compared to other treatments with coconut water, whereas MS media supplemented with 200 g/L banana homogenate produced the highest number of induced shoots (3.00 ± 0.144) and the highest shoot height (0.958 ± 0.020 cm) of all the banana homogenate treatments. In conclusion, coconut water and banana homogenate are suitable alternatives for carbon sources and other organic growth factors contributing to the regeneration of Ficus carica cv. VDS.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Akin-Idowu, P.E., Ibitoye, D.O. & Ademoyegun, O.T. 2009. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(16): 3782-3788.

Akter, S., Nasiruddin, K. & Khaldun, A. 2007. Organogenesis of Dendrobium orchid using traditional media and organic extracts. Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development, 5(1): 30-35. DOI:

Al-Khayri, J.M., Huang, F.H., Morelock, T.E. & Busharar, T.A. 1992. Spinach tissue culture improved with coconut water. HortScience, 27(4): 357-358. DOI:

Anhwange, B.A., Ugye, T.J. & Nyiaatagher, T.D. 2009. Chemicals composition of Musa sapientum (banana) peels. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 8(6): 437-442.

Apensa, V. & Mastuti, R. 2018. Effect of banana homogenate on shoot regeneration of Ciplukan (Physalis angulata L.). The Journal of Experimental Life Sciences, 8(1): 53-60. DOI:

Çalişkan, O. & Polat, A.A. 2011. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of selected fig (Ficus carica L.) accessions from the eastern mediterranean region of Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae, 128(4): 473-478. DOI:

Caliskan, O. 2015. Mediterranean figs (Ficus carica L.) functional food properties. In The Mediterranean Diet. Academic Press. DOI:

Daud, N., Taha, R. M., Noor, N.N.M. & Alimon, H. 2011. Effects of different organic additives on in vitro shoot regeneration of Celosia sp.. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences., 14(9): 546-551. DOI:

Denchev, P., Velcheva, M., Dragijska, R., Kuklin, A. & Atanassov, A. 1990. Somatic embryogenesis in Medicago. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 4(5-6): 66-70. DOI:

Ferreira, E.A. & Pasqual, M. 2007. Ficus carica L. produced by micropropagation. Acta Horticulturae, 738: 437-442. DOI:

Flaishman, M.A., Dagan, B., Rodov, V., Dagan, B. & Stover, E. 2008. The Fig: Botany, horticulture, and breeding. Horticultural Reviews, 34: 113-196. DOI:

Gansau, A.J., Indan, H., Abdullah, S.N., David, D., Marbawi, H. & Jawan, R. 2016. Effects of organic additives and plant growth regulators on protocorm development of Dendrobium lowii. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3): 462-468.

George, E.F. 1993. Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. Part 1: The Technology. 2nd Ed. Exegetics Limited, Westbury. 574 pp.

George, E.F., Hall, M.A. and Klerk, G.-J. De. 2008. The components of plant tissue culture media II: Organic additions, osmotic and pH effects, and support systems. In: Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture: Volume 1. The Background. E.F. George, M.A. Hall, and G.-J. De Klerk (Eds.). Springer, Netherlands. pp. 115-173. DOI:

Gnasekaran, P., Rathinam, X., Sinniah, U.R. & Subramaniam, S. 2010. A study on the use of organic additives on the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) growth of Phalaenopsis violacea orchid. Journal of Phytology, 2(1): 29-33.

Gopikrishna, V., Baweja, P.S., Venkateshbabu, N., Thomas, T. & Kandaswamy, D. 2008. Comparison of coconut water, propolis, HBSS, and milk on PDL cell survival. Journal of Endodontics, 34: 587-589. DOI:

Hepaksoy, S. & Aksoy, U. 2006. Propagation of Ficus carica L. clones by in vitro culture. Biologia Plantarum, 50(3): 433-436. DOI:

Jackson, J.C., Gordon, A., Wizzard, G., McCook, K. & Rolle, R. 2004. Changes in chemical composition of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water during maturation of the fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84(9): 1049-1052. DOI:

Kaur, S. & Bhutani, K.K. 2012. Organic growth supplement stimulants for in vitro multiplication of Cymbidium pendulum (Roxb.) Sw. Horticultural Science, 39(1): 47-52. DOI:

Kislev, M.E., Hartmann, A. & Bar-Yosef, O. 2006. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. Science, 312(5778): 1372-1374. DOI:

Lansky, E.P. & Paavilainen, H.M. 2011. Traditional Herbal Medicines for Modern Times Figs. 1st Ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 416 pp.

Lee, Y.J., Sriskanda, D., Subramaniam, S. & Chew, B.L. 2022. The effects of banana, potato, and coconut water in the regeneration of Ficus carica cv. Japanese BTM 6. Malaysian Applied Biology, 51(1): 163-170. DOI:

Ling, W.T., Liew, F.C., Lim, W.Y., Subramaniam, S. & Chew, B.L. 2018. Shoot induction from axillary shoot tip explants of fig (Ficus carica) cv. Japanese BTM 6. Tropical Life Science Research, 29(2): 165-174. DOI:

Manawadu, I., Dahanayake, N. & Senanayake, S.G.N. 2014. Effects of different natural organic additives on in vitro shoot regeneration of Raphanus sativus L. var. Beeralu. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 4(3A): 219-223.

Michael, P.S. 2012. Effects of coconut water on callus initiation and plant regeneration potentials of sweetpotato. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 144(3&4): 91-101.

Molnár, Z., Virág, E. & Ördög, V. 2011. Natural substances in tissue culture media of higher plants. Acta Biologica Szegediensis, 55(1): 123-127.

Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15(3): 473-497. DOI:

Muthukrishnan, S., Kumar, T.S. & Rao, M.V. 2013. Effects of different media and organic additives on seed germination of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam) Schltr.-an endangered orchid. International Journal of Scientific Research, 2(8): 23-26. DOI:

Nambiar, N., Tee, C.S. & Maziah, M. 2012. Effects of organic additives and different carbohydrate sources on proliferation of protocormlike bodies in Dendrobium Alya Pink. Plant Omics, 5(1): 10-18.

Obsuwan, K. & Thepsithar., C. 2014. An effect of organic supplements on stimulating growth of Vanda and Mokara seedlings in tissue culture. International Journal of Bioengineering and Life Sciences, 8(7): 696-698.

Pasqual, M. & Ferreira, E.A. 2007. Micropropagation of fig tree (Ficus carica sp). In: Protocols for Micropropagation of Woody Trees and Fruits. S.M. Jain and H. Häggman (Eds.). Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 409-416. DOI:

Phillips, K.M., McGinty, R.C., Couture, G., Pehrsson, P.R., McKillop, K. & Fukagawa, N.K. 2021. Dietary fiber, starch, and sugars in bananas at different stages of ripeness in the retail market. PloS One, 16(7): e0253366. DOI:

Prades, A., Dornier, M., Diop, N. & Pain, J.P. 2012. Coconut water uses, composition and properties : A review. Fruits, 67(2): 87-107. DOI:

Rahman, A.R.M.M., Islam, M.O., Prodhan, A.K.M.A., & Ichihashi, S. 2004. Effects of complex organic extracts on plantlet regeneration from PLBs and plantlet growth in the Doritaenopsis orchid. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 38(1): 55-59. DOI:

Sananda, M., Ahirwar, M.K., Singh, M.K. & Singh, R.P. 2015. Effect of coconut water and ascorbic acid on shoot regeneration in banana variety Dwarf Cavendish. International Journal Environmental & Agricultural Science, 1(1): 65-69.

Santoso, U., Kubo, K., Ota, T., Tadokoro, T. & Maekawa, A. 1996. Nutrient composition of kopyor coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.). Food Chemistry, 57(2): 299-304. DOI:

Singh, A. 2020. The effect of natural organic extracts on the in vitro growth of plants. Plant Cell Technology.

Soliman, H.I., Gabr, M. & Abdallah, N.A. 2010. Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis. GM Crops, 1(1): 40-51. DOI:



How to Cite

Lui, X. J., Sriskanda, D., Ling, W. T., Subramaniam, S., & Chew, B. L. (2022). The Incorporation of Coconut Water and Banana Homogenate in The Regeneration of Fig (Ficus carica L.) cv. Violette de Solliès. Malaysian Applied Biology, 51(5), 13–22.